TABLE 1

Baseline demographic and metabolic variables in the full cohort, those completing 4 years, and those with monotherapy failure before 4 years

All
subjects4-Year
completer cohort4-Year monotherapy
failure cohortP value
4-Year completers
vs. monotherapy
failures
n4,3512,112526
Age (years)56.5 ± 10.058.0 ± 9.452.2 ± 9.7<0.025
Males (n, %)2,511 (57.7)1,251 (59.2)321 (61.0)N.S.
Time since diagnosis of diabetes (years)
 <11,961 (4.1)929 (44.0)237 (45.1)N.S.
 1–22,233 (51.3)1,100 (52.1)274 (52.1)N.S.
 >2157 (3.6)83 (3.9)15 (2.9)N.S.
GAD-positive175 (4.0)92 (4.4)25 (4.8)N.S.
BMI (kg/m2)32.2 ± 6.331.8 ± 6.033.2 ± 6.4<0.025
Waist circumference (cm)105.5 ± 14.7104.8 ± 13.7108.0 ± 16.1<0.025
Waist-to-hip ratio0.95 ± 0.090.95 ± 0.090.96 ± 0.09N.S.
Blood pressure (mmHg)
 Systolic132.9 ± 15.5133.3 ± 15.4131.1 ± 15.9<0.025
 Diastolic79.6 ± 8.879.3 ± 8.679.7 ± 9.2N.S.
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L)8.4 ± 1.58.2 ± 1.39.1 ± 1.7<0.025
HbA1c (%)7.4 ± 0.97.2 ± 0.97.7 ± 1.0<0.025
Fasting insulin (pmol/L)150.7 ± 111.0
122.0 (84.0, 186.0)147.9 ± 113.2
120.0 (84.0, 179.4)148.5 ± 100.4
126.0 (84.0, 186.0)N.S.
1/Fasting insulin (pmol/L−1 × 10−3)8.20 (5.38, 11.90)8.33 (5.57, 11.90)7.94 (5.38, 11.90)N.S.
HOMA %S33.4 (22.6–48.2)34.6 (23.5–49.4)31.5 (21.8–47.7)N.S.
Insulinogenic index (pmol/L per mmol/L)32.0 (17.9, 57.4)33.2 (19.2, 58.9)26.1 (12.5, 47.7)<0.025
HOMA %B68.4 (52.0–88.3)70.4 (53.4–90.4)60.3 (44.5–79.7)<0.025
  • Continuous data are expressed as means ± SD and/or median (first, third quartile). For time since diagnosis of diabetes and GAD-positive, data are n (%). P values were adjusted for two comparisons using the Bonferroni method. HOMA %S and HOMA %B were determined using the HOMA calculator (www.dtu.ox.ac.uk/homa). N.S., nonsignificant.