TABLE 3

Hormone responses

T1D− patientsT1D+ patientsControl subjects
GLP-1SalineEx9-39GLP-1SalineEx9-39GLP-1SalineEx9-39
Glucose
 IAUC−0.14 ± 0.10**0.93 ± 0.201.17 ± 0.13 (NS)−0.27 ± 0.11**0.73 ± 0.141.07 ± 0.10*−0.01 ± 0.03**0.08 ± 0.030.14 ± 0.03 (NS)
 TAUC1.54 ± 0.30**2.80 ± 0.303.16 ± 0.23 (P = 0.06)1.27 ± 0.13***2.43 ± 0.152.70 ± 0.15*1.04 ± 0.02***1.18 ± 0.011.24 ± 0.04 (NS)
Glucagon
 IAUC−0.39 ± 0.1**0.66 ± 0.182.31 ± 0.23***−0.27 ± 0.14*0.64 ± 0.193.21 ± 0.47***−0.48 ± 0.09**0.70 ± 0.221.78 ± 1.44***
 TAUC0.67 ± 0.14***1.55 ± 0.253.59 ± 0.27***1.53 ± 0.31**2.53 ± 0.444.74 ± 0.75**0.99 ± 0.12**1.92 ± 0.412.98 ± 0.23*
C-peptide
 IAUC43.7 ± 19.2*70.1 ± 26.956.0 ± 22 (P = 0.06)121 ± 43 (NS)209 ± 34.6187 ± 20.2 (NS)
 TAUC90.2 ± 33.7*110 ± 35.095.8 ± 31*213 ± 75*321 ± 44.9284 ± 27.7 (NS)
ISR
 IAUC0.16 ± 0.1*0.28 ± 0.90.22 ± 0.1 (P = 0.06)0.47 ± 0.1 (NS)0.83 ± 0.20.72 ± 0.1 (NS)
 TAUC0.32 ± 0.1*0.41 ± 0.10.35 ± 0.1*0.80 ± 0.1*1.21 ± 0.21.05 ± 0.1 (NS)
  • Data are mean ± SEM. TAUC and incremental integrated AUC (IAUC), respectively (−30 to 180 min), of plasma glucose (M × min), C-peptide (nM × min), ISR (nmol × kg−1), and glucagon (nM × min) during infusion with GLP-1, saline, or Ex9-39 in type 1 diabetic patients without (−) and with (+) residual β-cell function and control subjects. NS, nonsignificance vs. saline in the same group.

  • *P ≤ 0.05 vs. saline;

  • **P < 0.01 vs. saline;

  • ***P < 0.001 vs. saline within the same group;

  • P ≤ 0.05 vs. control subjects with saline;

  • P = NS vs. control subjects with saline.