TABLE 3

Metabolic characteristics of men and women during OGTT and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp according to the quartiles of GGT

MenWomen
Q 1Q 2Q 3Q 4P for trendQ1Q2Q3Q4P for trend
Fasting insulinemia (pmol ⋅ L−1)23.2 (14.0)27.3 (22.0)34.0 (25.9)34.5 (25.7)0.000423.0 (16.0)23.2 (16.0)26.2 (19.0)31.0 (26.7)<0.0001
Adiponectin (mg ⋅ L−1)6.9 (2.7)6.8 (2.4)6.2 (2.9)5.9 (2.3)0.00210.8 (4.1)10.2 (3.8)9.8 (3.6)9.1 (3.7)0.001
M/I (μmol ⋅ min−1 ⋅ kg FFM−1 ⋅ [nmol ⋅ L−1]−1)130.9 (67.7)116.8 (85.1)95.5 (65.3)93.6 (64.2)<0.0001145.6 (74.2)153.4 (76.7)142.6 (89.7)134.4 (95.6)0.001
Basal insulin secretion rate (pmol/min per m2)59.8 (26.7)71.1 (34.9)82.0 (46.3)92.9 (40.5)0.00266.5 (29.0)68.9 (25.5)70.7 (29.7)84.9 (34.2)0.0008
Total insulin secretion during OGTT (nmol/m2)34.0 (14.8)37.4 (15.2)44.3 (18.3)46.1 (18.3)0.002937.7 (12.3)41.1 (13.2)40.5 (12.8)46.1 (15.4)0.004
Endogenous clearance of insulin during OGTT (L/min per m2)1.73 (0.6)1.59 (0.6)1.40 (0.7)1.44 (0.7)0.00051.67 (0.6)1.68 (0.6)1.60 (0.7)1.47 (0.8)0.003
Hepatic insulin extraction during OGTT (dimensionless)0.65 (0.1)0.62 (0.1)0.59 (0.2)0.58 (0.2)0.0040.63 (0.2)0.63 (0.2)0.62 (0.1)0.60 (0.2)0.09
  • Data are (median [interquartile range]) unless otherwise indicated. P values are given after adjustment for age, center, physical activity, alcohol intake, and waist circumference. Quartiles of GGT are as follows: men, 7–20, 21–26, 27–36, and >36 IU ⋅ L−1; and women, 5–13, 14–17, 18–23, and >23 IU ⋅ L−1.