TABLE 1

Clinical characteristics of patients and newborns

VariablesNormal pregnancies (n = 44)GDM pregnancies (n = 44)
Maternal variables
 Age (years)32 ± 2 (26–36)31 ± 4 (25–33)
 Height (cm)156 ± 11 (151–169)154 ± 9 (149–165)
 Weight (kg)60 ± 4.1 (50–70)66 ± 2.4 (52–85)
 BMI (kg/m2)24 ± 1.5 (20–28)25 ± 0.4 (20–29)
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)109 ± 7 (105–112)111 ± 6 (107–114)
 Hemoglobin A1c (% of total)3.4 ± 0.3 (2.8–4.2)7.9 ± 0.1* (7.1–13.1)
 Glycemia basal (mg/dL)86 ± 4 (83–89)81 ± 6 (78–89)
 Glycemia 2 h after glucose (mg/dL)105 ± 9 (93–114)188 ± 12* (155–198)
Newborn variables
 Sex (male/female)27/1723/21
 Gestational age (weeks)38.2 ± 0.3 (37.6–38.5)38.3 ± 0.2 (38.0–38.6)
 Birth weight (g)3,387 ± 55 (3,102–3,441)4,644 ± 63* (4,451–5,309)
 Height (cm)48.7 ± 4.1 (44–53)51.2 ± 3.6* (48–52)
 Ponderal index (g/cm3 × 100)3.03 ± 0.2 (2.97–3.09)3.90 ± 0.2* (3.55–4.34)
 Umbilical vein d-glucose (mmol/L)2.9 ± 0.3 (2.6–3.3)3.2 ± 0.4 (2.55–4.34)
  • Data are presented as mean ± SEM (range), except for hemoglobin A1c, where values are mean ± SD (range).

  • Glycemia was measured at basal conditions (overnight fasting) and 2 h after an oral load with glucose (75 g) as described in research design and methods. GDM patients were treated with diet.

  • *P < 0.05 vs. values in normal pregnancy.