TABLE 2

Total, direct, and indirect effects of maternal plasma glucose during pregnancy and fetal insulin on birth weight or length (N = 342)

Birth weightBirth length
TotalDirectIndirectTotalDirectIndirect
Maternal glycemia
 Estimate0.080.050.030.090.080.01
 SD0.050.050.030.050.050.02
 P value0.130.300.240.100.150.46
Fetal C-peptide
 Estimate0.190.0040.180.07−0.040.11
 SD0.050.050.030.050.060.03
 P value<0.0010.93<0.0010.170.53<0.001
Fetal IGF-I
 Estimate0.480.480.290.29
 SD0.050.050.050.05
 P value<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001
  • Boldface type represents P ≤ 0.05.