TABLE 1

Maternal, paternal, and infant’s characteristics by sex (N = 342)

VariableBoys (n = 192)Girls (n = 150)P value
Parental characteristics
 Center (Nancy University Hospital)54.263.30.09
 Maternal age (years)29.9 ± 4.529.8 ± 5.00.84
 Parity (multipara)59.452.70.22
Maternal BMI
 Thin6.97.30.11
 Normal70.962.7
 Overweight17.520.7
 Obese4.89.3
Maternal BMI (kg/m2)22.9 ± 3.923.5 ± 4.60.20
Gestational weight gain (kg)9.4 ± 5.09.6 ± 5.20.81
GDM3.67.30.13
Maternal plasma glucose (mg/dL)113 ± 26113.5 ± 260.84
Paternal BMI
 Thin/normal48.053.60.29
 Overweight40.837.7
 Obese11.28.7
Offspring's characteristics at birth
 Gestational age (weeks)39.5 ± 1.539.5 ± 1.40.73
 Birth weight (g)3,427 ± 4853,274 ± 4180.002
 Length at birth (cm)50.0 ± 2.449.1 ± 2.2<0.001
 Sum of skinfolds (mm)*8.5 ± 1.58.8 ± 1.50.12
 C-peptide (mmol/L)0.81 ± 0.430.95 ± 0.490.01
 IGF-I (ng/mL)72.5 ± 33.181.7 ± 36.10.01
Feeding mode in the first 3 months
 Exclusive breastfeeding35.027.60.40
 Mixed feeding39.547.0
 Exclusive formula feeding25.425.4
Offspring's characteristics at 1 year
 Weight (kg)10.2 ± 1.19.5 ± 1.0<0.0001
 Length (cm)75.7 ± 2.873.9 ± 2.3<0.0001
 Sum of skinfolds (mm)*15.1 ± 3.115.1 ± 2.70.85
  • Data are percentage or means ± SD. Boldface type represents P ≤ 0.05 or clinically significant.

  • *Sum of tricipital and subscapular skinfolds.