TABLE 3

Total, direct, and indirect effects of maternal plasma glucose during pregnancy, fetal C-peptide, and fetal IGF-I on weight or length at 1 year (N = 339)

Weight at 1 yearLength at 1 year
Girls (n = 150)Boys (n = 189)*Girls (n = 150)Boys (n = 189)*
TotalDirectIndirectTotalDirectIndirectTotalDirectIndirectTotalDirectIndirect
Maternal glycemia
 Estimate−0.030.001−0.030.060.040.01−0.08−0.06−0.02−0.04−0.070.02
 SD0.070.070.020.070.070.010.080.080.020.070.070.02
 P value0.700.980.140.390.520.260.300.430.290.500.290.11
Fetal C-peptide
 Estimate−0.14−0.230.100.090.040.05−0.09−0.150.060.160.130.03
 SD0.070.070.030.070.070.040.080.080.030.070.070.03
 P value0.06<0.001<0.0010.190.560.200.250.060.050.020.070.44
Fetal IGF-I
 Estimate0.310.040.270.10−0.120.220.180.090.090.06−0.070.13
 SD0.080.080.050.080.080.040.080.080.030.080.080.04
 P value<0.0010.57<0.0010.190.14<0.0010.030.250.010.440.35<0.001
  • Boldface type represents P ≤ 0.05 or clinically significant.

  • *Three boys had missing weight or length at 1 year.