TABLE 2

Effect of meal ingestion during hyperglycemic clamp on islet hormonal response and GI peptides in studies with and without IV Ex-9 infusion in Asym-GB, Hypo-GB, and nonsurgical control subjects

Time interval (min)Asym-GB (n = 12)Hypo-GB (n = 12)Control subjects (n = 10)P values
SalineEx-9SalineEx-9SalineEx-9Group statusEx-9 vs. salineInteraction
Glucose (mmol/L)Fasting4.5 ± 0.14.4 ± 0.14.4 ± 0.14.4 ± 0.14.6 ± 0.14.6 ± 0.10.200.500.40
60–9013.8 ± 0.213.8 ± 0.213.0 ± 0.413.0 ± 0.412.8 ± 0.312.8 ± 0.30.080.800.60
95–27013.8 ± 0.113.8 ± 0.113.1 ± 0.413.1 ± 0.412.8 ± 0.312.8 ± 0.30.080.800.70
GINF (mg/kg/min)60–908.7 ± 1.58.9 ± 1.29.9 ± 0.98.4 ± 0.712.9 ± 1.810.5 ± 0.90.200.020.14
95–27019.1 ± 1.916.7 ± 2.018.3 ± 1.015.6 ± 0.719.2 ± 1.719.1 ± 1.00.60<0.0010.04
Insulin (pmol/L)Fasting54 ± 852 ± 353 ± 653 ± 573 ± 872 ± 60.060.780.95
60–90364 ± 68287 ± 54388 ± 67294 ± 41621 ± 78527 ± 870.020.0030.90
95–1503,162 ± 4022,018 ± 3123,986 ± 5622,102 ± 2771,778 ± 2111,629 ± 2130.03<0.001<0.001
95–2703,099 ± 5441,549 ± 2533,087 ± 4551,431 ± 2122,783 ± 3012,337 ± 2930.82<0.0010.02
C-peptide (nmol/L)Fasting0.56 ± 0.060.54 ± 0.070.46 ± 0.040.41 ± 0.030.62 ± 0.070.58 ± 0.050.090.070.70
60–902.2 ± 0.21.9 ± 0.21.9 ± 0.31.5 ± 0.22.9 ± 0.22.3 ± 0.30.02<0.0010.70
95–1507.8 ± 0.75.6 ± 0.67.3 ± 0.74.9 ± 0.75.2 ± 0.44.6 ± 0.60.03<0.0010.003
95–2707.9 ± 0.85.4 ± 0.66.3 ± 0.64.0 ± 0.66.7 ± 0.65.9 ± 0.60.19<0.0010.003
ISR (nmol/min)Fasting0.15 ± 0.020.15 ± 0.020.12 ± 0.010.11 ± 0.010.16 ± 0.020.15 ± 0.020.210.100.72
60–900.8 ± 0.10.7 ± 0.10.7 ± 0.10.5 ± 0.10.9 ± 0.10.8 ± 0.10.15<0.0010.80
95–1503.5 ± 0.42.3 ± 0.23.0 ± 0.31.7 ± 0.31.9 ± 0.21.8 ± 0.20.04<0.001<0.001
95–2702.4 ± 0.31.6 ± 0.21.8 ± 0.21.1 ± 0.22.0 ± 0.21.7 ± 0.20.14<0.0010.004
Glucagon (pg/mL)Fasting55 ± 349 ± 451 ± 450 ± 348 ± 651 ± 60.900.500.20
AUCGlucagon (pg/mL⋅min)85–90−979 ± 145−497 ± 256−772 ± 107−621 ± 114−637 ± 332−980 ± 2080.880.590.21
95–1501,262 ± 1472,141 ± 2851,880 ± 2182,526 ± 368−612 ± 361−672 ± 191<0.0010.040.26
95–2702,805 ± 5654,883 ± 7754,080 ± 5595,107 ± 726−1,611 ± 979−1,683 ± 576<0.0010.080.33
GLP-1 (pmol/L)Fasting5.0 ± 1.06.6 ± 1.15.2 ± 0.711.5 ± 4.64.1 ± 0.57.8 ± 1.20.610.280.69
AUCGLP-1 (nmol/L⋅min)95–1501.4 ± 0.32.2 ± 0.42.3 ± 0.32.7 ± 0.40.0 ± 0.00.4 ± 0.2<0.0010.010.50
95–2102.2 ± 0.43.7 ± 0.73.2 ± 0.44.4 ± 0.90.0 ± 0.10.8 ± 0.3<0.0010.0050.80
GIP (nmol/L)Fasting40.8 ± 7.747.7 ± 10.326.7 ± 5.738.7 ± 8.032.5 ± 7.840.0 ± 11.60.610.100.90
AUCGIP (μmol/L⋅min)95–1508.3 ± 1.59.7 ± 1.49.0 ± 1.010.0 ± 1.93.9 ± 1.23.7 ± 0.70.0060.400.60
95–24015.6 ± 2.915.8 ± 2.514.0 ± 1.915.2 ± 3.213.2 ± 3.111.1 ± 1.40.540.500.50
  • Data are presented as means ± SEM. Statistical effects (treatment [saline/Ex-9], group status [Asym-GB/Hypo-GB/control subjects], and their interaction) using two-way repeated-measures ANOVA are provided in the last three right-hand columns. Glucagon and GIP values were measured for 29 (11 Asym-GB, 11 Hypo-GB, and 7 control subjects) and 33 (12 Asym-GB, 12 Hypo-GB, and 9 control subjects) subjects, respectively. GINF, glucose infusion rate.