TABLE 1

Patient demographics

Glomerular samplesTubular samples
ControlDKDPControlDKDP
n1391210
Sex (female)5568
Age (years)51.38 ± 12.0164 ± 13.563.2E–0254.08 ± 13.8163.5 ± 15.640.149
Ethnicity
 Asian Pacific Islander0010
 Non-Hispanic white6233
 Non-Hispanic black3346
 Hispanic3421
 Other and unknown1020
BMI (kg/m2)29.59 ± 9.0832.74 ± 7.90.4128.60 ± 5.6532.87 ± 8.310.169
Hypertension4968
Diabetes09010
Proteinuria (dipstick)0.69 ± 0.852.55 ± 1.743.0E–030.4 ± 0.843.4 ± 0.842.65E–07
Spot protein (mg/dL)*0.45 ± 0.171.97 ± 0.789.1E–030.86 ± 0.692.41 ± 0.678.1E–03
Spot creatinine (mg/dL)*1.76 ± 0.211.79 ± 0.130.8231.83 ± 0.181.69 ± 0.110.213
Spot PCR*−1.31 ± 0.120.41 ± 0.896.9E–03−0.57 ± 1.150.94 ± 0.614.0E–02
Hematuria0.07 ± 0.270.66 ± 0.863.1E–020.0 ± 0.00.8 ± 1.220.054
Serum creatinine (mg/dL)1.02 ± 0.242.83 ± 1.554.7E–041.06 ± 0.213.39 ± 1.607.04E–05
Serum BUN (mg/dL)13.53 ± 4.5340.44 ± 22.654.3E–0413.75 ± 4.2637.9 ± 15.143.46E–05
eGFR (mL/min)80.91 ± 23.4231.08 ± 13.361.2E–0573.77 ± 21.0821.85 ± 11.549.55E–07
Histology
Glomerulosclerosis (%)0.32 ± 0.9624.39 ± 13.204.3E–060.49 ± 1.0033.80 ± 28.596.1E–04
Endothelial lumen: patent (%)100 ± 093 ± 13.036.9E–0299.54 ± 1.5081.66 ± 20.419.4E–03
Lumen: cells0000
Lumen: thrombi0000
Mesangial cells0 ± 00.75 ± 0.951.5E–020 ± 00.6 ± 0.543.1E–03
Increased mesangial matrix0.16 ± 0.571.6 ± 1.51.0E–020.09 ± 0.302.16 ± 1.164.2E–05
Bowman's capsule thickening0.0 ± 0.01.5 ± 1.293.4E–030.3 ± 0.481.8 ± 0.836.4E–0.4
Tubular atrophy (%)2.5 ± 3.9823.88 ± 13.645.2E–052.66 ± 5.7835 ± 21.085.3E–05
Interstitial fibrosis (%)2.08 ± 3.9631.11 ± 26.191.1E–033.5 ± 4.3339 ± 24.698.4E–05
Vascular sclerosis0.7 ± 0.961.42 ± 0.780.11270.70 ± 0.861.62 ± 0.742.4E–02
  • Data are n or means ± SD. Demographics and histological analysis: eGFR was calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. *Spot protein, creatinine, and PCR were log10 transformed. An arbitrary scale was used to evaluate dipstick proteinuria (0 = negative, 1 = trace, 2 = 30 mg/dL, 3 = 100 mg/dL, and 4 = 300 mg/dL) as well as hematuria (0 = red blood cell count <5, 1 = red blood cell count 6–20, 2 = red blood cell count 21–50, 3 = red blood cell count >50). Vascular sclerosis: 0 = normal; 1 = mild; 2 = moderate; and 3 = severe. Student t test was used to determine the statistical significance between groups for age, weight, BMI, proteinuria, serum creatinine, serum BUN, and eGFR. Lumen cells and lumen thrombi: 0 = normal and 1 = increased. Mesangial matrix: 0 = normal; 1 = focal; 2 = increased, mild; and 3 = increased, nodular. Bowman’s capsule thickening: 0 = normal; 1 = focal; 2 = mild circumferential; 3 = moderate; and 4 = severe.