TABLE 4

Clinical characteristics of additional DKD cases used for the evaluation of C3 expression

C3 positiveC3 negativeP
n2021
Age (years)52.7 ± 15.3654.05 ± 11.670.752
Sex (female)149
Race
 Asian Pacific Islander00
 Non-Hispanic white44
 Non-Hispanic black1111
 Hispanic03
 Other and unknown53
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)135 ± 25.39136.33 ± 16.580.858
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)76.64 ± 16.5277.28 ± 10.110.894
HbA1c7.17 ± 1.647.81 ± 2.020.373
Glucose (mg/dL)150.61 ± 74.36188.11 ± 88.620.173
Serum C3 level (mg/dL)118 ± 40.13133.73 ± 27.960.315
Serum albumin (g/dL)2.82 ± 0.713.42 ± 0.560.008
Urine protein-creatinine ratio7.7 ± 0.947.8 ± 2.50.978
Serum creatinine at biopsy (mg/dL)2.73 ± 1.732.73 ± 1.120.994
eGFR (mL/min)33.35 ± 19.6432.1 ± 17.280.837
Segmentally or globally sclerotic glomeruli (%)49.1 ± 29.2122.1 ± 16.10.002
Decreased cellularity (%)42320.223
Increased mesangial matrix (%)951000.311
Patent lumen (%)67.67 ± 32.2373.33 ± 19.70.598
IgG1.9 ± 1.210.95 ± 1.120.012
IgM1.74 ± 0.990.76 ± 0.830.001
IgA0.47 ± 0.700.48 ± 0.810.991
C31.95 ± 0.830
C1q0.26 ± 0.650.24 ± 0.700.907
κ Light chain1.26 ± 1.190.21 ± 0.540.001
Λ Light chain1.11 ± 1.150.20 ± 0.520.002
Fibrinogen1.00 ± 1.060.25 ± 0.640.011
  • Data are means ± SD unless otherwise indicated. eGFR was calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. IgG, IgM, IgA, C3, C1q, κ and Λ chain, and fibrinogen are reported on an arbitrary scale of 0--3 (0, normal; 1, mild; 2, moderate; and 3, severe). A Student t test was used to determine the statistical significance between groups.