TABLE 1

Clinical characteristic of the participants

Stage 1Stage 2
Control subjectsDiabetic nephropathy onlyDiabetic retinopathy onlyDiabetic nephropathy and retinopathyControl subjectsDiabetic retinopathy
Male/female102/178213/165157/217135/109170/21199/110
Age (years)67.04 ± 9.4961.21 ± 13.7461.24 ± 10.7464.36 ± 10.5664.60 ± 10.3562.06 ± 11.81
BMI (kg/m2)23.85 ± 3.1625.28 ± 3.7723.97 ± 3.4524.43 ± 3.9524.72 ± 3.4925.03 ± 3.39
Age at diagnosis of diabetes (years)52.88 ± 9.7754.79 ± 12.6751.76 ± 10.1751.70 ± 11.3853.97 ± 10.5051.57 ± 11.93
Duration of diabetes (years)12.00 (10.00–16.00)6.00 (0.80–10.00)10.00 (5.00–14.00)12.00 (8.00–18.00)9.00 (6.90–13.00)10.00 (5.00–15.00)
Hemoglobin A1c (%)8.47 ± 1.999.26 ± 2.348.98 ± 2.119.49 ± 2.217.88 ± 1.728.96 ± 2.53
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)133.90 ± 17.04137.62 ± 18.58135.27 ± 17.92143.79 ± 19.73133.42 ± 16.69134.25 ± 20.98
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)78.45 ± 8.6882.23 ± 10.0780.20 ± 9.3782.98 ± 9.6281.12 ± 9.2280.66 ± 11.56
AERs (mg/24 h)8.81 (6.00–13.44)79.90 (44.03–203.60)10.85 (7.17–16.28)163.62 (54.31–607.54)10.16 (5.87–29.77)11.67 (6.18–43.53)
eGFR*116.82 (102.05–137.85)112.52 (87.24–138.57)124.08 (105.21–149.32)104.72 (76.85–134.74)124.52 (106.74–145.06)122.41 (97.73–146.77)
  • Data are n, means ± SD, or medians (interquartile range). eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate.

  • *eGFR was calculated by using the formula developed by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study group with adjustment for the Chinese ethnicity.