Table 2

Integrated incremental response of glucose, parameters characterizing insulin secretory responses, incretin hormones, and selected gastrointestinal hormones in relation to vildagliptin treatment and to the administration of exendin [9-39] in healthy control subjects and patients with type 2 diabetes

ConditionSignificance
Vildagliptin no,
exendin [9-39] noVildagliptin no,
exendin [9-39] yesVildagliptin yes,
exendin [9-39] noVildagliptin yes,
exendin [9-39] yesVildagliptin Exendin
[9-39]Interaction
Healthy control subjects
 Glucose (pmol ⋅ L−1 ⋅ h)2.0 ± 0.22.6 ± 0.21.9 ± 0.22.4 ± 0.20.31<0.00010.94
 Insulin (pmol ⋅ L−1 ⋅ h)386 ± 41506 ± 55352 ± 34489 ± 430.21<0.00010.79
 C-peptide (ng ⋅ mL−1 ⋅ h)8.5 ± 0.89.8 ± 1.08.2 ± 0.610.0 ± 0.70.930.00030.56
 Insulin secretion (pmol/kg)8.8 ± 0.810.2 ± 0.98.4 ± 0.69.9 ± 0.60.410.00020.86
 GLP-1total (pmol ⋅ L−1 ⋅ h)11.3 ± 2.351.8 ± 5.68.0 ± 1.643.1 ± 4.90.11<0.00010.43
 GLP-1intact (pmol ⋅ L−1 ⋅ h)3.4 ± 0.78.2 ± 1.05.7 ± 0.721.8 ± 2.6<0.0001<0.00010.0001
 GIPtotal (pmol ⋅ L−1 ⋅ h)101 ± 849 ± 979 ± 921.8 ± 2.60.00080.0140.90
 GIPintact (pmol ⋅ L−1 ⋅ h)43.1 ± 4.555.4 ± 4.091.0 ± 9.4110.9 ± 8.0<0.00010.0150.56
Patients with type 2 diabetes
 Glucose (pmol ⋅ L−1 ⋅ h)3.9 ± 0.36.8 ± 0.53.9 ± 0.46.2 ± 0.40.28<0.00010.39
 Insulin (pmol ⋅ L−1 ⋅ h)453 ± 58514 ± 58459 ± 40558 ± 460.340.00240.46
 C-peptide (ng ⋅ mL−1 ⋅ h)8.0 ± 0.78.8 ± 0.79.1 ± 0.510.4 ± 0.60.00020.00220.50
 Insulin secretion (pmol/kg)8.5 ± 0.79.5 ± 0.79.2 ± 0.510.9 ± 0.50.0330.00010.35
 GLP-1total (pmol ⋅ L−1 ⋅ h)13.8 ± 2.462.3 ± 6.57.4 ± 1.947.3 ± 6.50.016<0.00010.33
 GLP-1intact (pmol ⋅ L−1 ⋅ h)3.2 ± 0.610.0 ± 1.57.9 ± 1.637.3 ± 6.5<0.0001<0.00010.0006
 GIPtotal (pmol ⋅ L−1 ⋅ h)85.8 ± 9.8111.0 ± 9.461.6 ± 8.485.8 ± 7.8<0.0001<0.00010.93
 GIPintact (pmol ⋅ L−1 ⋅ h)35.0 ± 5.253.4 ± 4.677.6 ± 8.696.7 ± 7.8<0.00010.00100.93
  • Data are mean ± SE. Statistical calculations are ANCOVA (see research design and methods for details).