Table 1

Baseline (6–9 weeks postpartum) and follow-up characteristics of SWIFT women with GDM in the training and testing sets (n = 122 pairs)

CharacteristicsTraining setTesting set
Non-T2D
(n = 80)Incident T2D
(n = 80)Non-T2D
(n = 42)Incident T2D
(n = 42)
Sociodemographic/clinical
 Age, years33.1 (4.5)33.3 (5.2)35.1 (5.5)35.4 (5.5)
 Race/ethnicity, n (%)
  Non-Hispanic white13 (16)12 (15)8 (19)9 (21)
  Asian (East, South, Southeast)26 (33)26 (33)13 (31)10 (24)
  Non-Hispanic black10 (12)10 (12)2 (5)5 (12)
  Hispanic31 (39)31 (39)17 (41)17 (41)
  Other0 (0)1 (1)2 (5)1 (2)
 Parity, n (%)
  Primiparous (1 birth)31 (39)26 (33)13 (31)16 (38)
  Biparous (2 births)27 (34)29 (36)14 (33)16 (38)
  Multiparous (>2 births)22 (27)25 (31)15 (36)10 (24)
 GDM prenatal treatment, n (%)
  Diet only50 (63)33 (41)*29 (69)19 (45)*
  Oral medications28 (35)38 (48)13 (31)17 (40)
  Insulin2 (2)9 (11)0 (0)6 (14)
 Gestational age at GDM diagnosis (weeks)24.4 (7.5)22.0 (8.6)25.0 (7.1)23.3 (8.1)
 Prepregnancy BMI, kg/m233.3 (8.3)33.5 (8.4)32.6 (7.5)33.1 (7.6)
 Postpartum 6–9 weeks BMI, kg/m233.2 (7.8)33.5 (7.7)32.4 (6.6)33.3 (7.6)
 Hypertension history, n (%)16 (20)19 (24)8 (19)8 (19)
 Family history of diabetes, n (%)42 (53)45 (56)19 (33)27 (64)*
6–9 weeks postpartum, lifestyle
 Smoker, n (%)2 (3)4 (5)1 (2)1 (2)
 Physical activity, met-h/week47.4 (21.0)54.2 (25.1)49.4 (21.6)48.8 (24.9)
 Total energy intake, kcal/day811 (319)805 (338)774 (340)900.4 (297)
 Lactation intensity groups, n (%)
  Exclusive lactation20 (25)10 (12)8 (19)8 (19)
  Mostly lactation30 (38)28 (35)15 (36)17 (41)
  Mostly formula/mixed18 (22)19 (24)10 (24)12 (29)
  Exclusive formula12 (15)23 (29)9 (21)5 (12)
6–9 weeks postpartum, plasma
 FPG, mg/dL95 (8.4)103 (10.5)*93.5 (7.8)101.4 (11.3)*
 2hPG, mg/dL109 (25.9)132 (29.5)*116 (28.5)132 (30.2)*
 Fasting insulin, µU/mL26 (14.8)33 (17.7)*25.6 (12.1)29.1 (20)
 Fasting triglycerides, mg/dL128 (90.7)150 (105.2)134 (79.6)151.3 (106)
 Fasting HDL-C, mg/dL49 (13.2)49 (13.0)51.5 (13.0)49.4 (10.9)
 HOMA-IR6.1 (3.7)8.6 (5.0)*5.97 (3.0)7.47 (5.9)
 HOMA-B299 (183)305 (156)313 (153)284 (193)
Postbaseline, 2-year follow-up
 Subsequent birth, n (%)5 (6)5 (6)9 (21)2 (5)*
 Follow-up in months, median (IQR)22.4 (1.9)16.4 (11.6)*§21.8 (2.8)18.3 (12.5)
  • Data are presented as the mean (SD) unless otherwise noted. Plasma values are from the SWIFT database (26).

  • *P < 0.05 between incident T2D and non-T2D groups;

  • ‡Determined by χ2 test;

  • P < 0.05 between training and testing sets. Specific differences between specific characteristics are shown in boldface type.

  • §Determined by Wilcoxon sum rank tests for medians.