Table 3

Counterregulatory hormones and lipolytic markers during hypoglycemic clamp

PresurgeryPostsurgery
ΔGlucagon (pmol/L)30.4 (19.2)15.2 (10.2)**
AUChypo glucagon (pmol/L/min)2,130 (860)1,080 (480)***
ΔCortisol (nmol/L)392 (195)300 (178)*
AUChypo cortisol (nmol/L/min)28,940 (6,740)21,250 (5,610)**
ΔGH (μg/L)7.0 (4.2)14.1 (8.9)*
AUChypo GH (μg/L/min)271 (122)436 (281)*
ΔEpinephrine (nmol/L)2.8 (1.2)2.2 (1.0)A
AUChypo epinephrine (nmol/L/min)130 (62)89 (36)B
ΔNorepinephrine (nmol/L)1.3 (0.8)0.9 (0.6)
AUChypo norepinephrine (nmol/L/min)146 (50)113 (42)*
ΔGLP-1 (pmol/L)29 (25)18 (15)
AUChypo GLP-1 (pmol/L/min)2,620 (2,160)1,250 (1,190)**
ΔGIP (pg/mL)420 (44)14 (11)*
AUChypo GIP (pg/mL/min)4,690 (2,440)2,910 (980)*
AUChypo FFAs (μmol/L/min)1,720 (830)800 (790)**
AUChypo glycerol (μmol/L/min)1,370 (460)810 (470)**
  • Values are reported as the mean (SD). Δ, difference between initial and peak level.

  • AP = 0.09.

  • BP = 0.07.

  • *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001.