Table 1

IMPROVE cohort characteristics

Without diabetes
(N = 2,470)T2D
(N = 901)P
Male sex, n (%)1,138 (44.7)533 (57.4)<0.0001
Age (years)64.2 (5.4)64.2 (5.6)0.8246
Height (m)1.67 (0.09)1.69 (0.09)<0.0001
BMI (kg/m2)26.6 (3.9)29.2 (4.6)<0.0001
WHR0.91 (0.08)0.95 (0.09)<0.0001
SBP141 (19)145 (18)<0.0001
DBP82 (10)82 (10)0.3524
LDL (mmol/L)3.71 (0.97)3.07 (0.95)<0.0001
HDL (mmol/L)*1.31 (0.36)1.14 (0.33)<0.0001
TG (mmol/L)*1.47 (0.90)1.91 (1.82)<0.0001
Fasting glucose (mmol/L)*5.29 (0.67)7.71 (2.18)<0.0001
C-reactive protein (mmol/L)*2.89 (6.16)3.20 (4.22)0.0001
CD93 (ng/mL)*164 (45)157 (40)<0.0001
Fasting proinsulin (pmol/L)*6.03 (6.26)10.5 (8.88)<0.0001
Fasting insulin (pmol/L)*44.4 (61.5)66.5 (88.4)<0.0001
HOMA-B*68.9 (54.3)50.8 (50.8)<0.0001
HOMA-IR*0.83 (1.09)1.33 (1.66)<0.0001
Uric acid (mmol/L)*309 (70)333 (76)<0.0001
Creatinine (mmol/L)*80.3 (17.7)82.8 (17.7)<0.0001
Vitamin D (nmol/L)*50.7 (21.5)48.2 (20.2)0.963
Adiponectin (μg/mL)*14.2 (9.9)9.43 (7.19)<0.0001
Leptin (ng/mL)*20.0 (17.0)21.6 (17.4)0.0138
IL-5 (pg/mL)*0.67 (1.82)0.86 (3.50)<0.0001
Smoking (pack-years)9.84 (16.3)14.1 (18.6)<0.0001
Current smoking (%)381 (15.0)143 (15.4)0.7483
Lipid-lowering medication (%)1,268 (49.8)449 (48.6)0.542
Antihypertensive medication (%)1,397 (54.8)604 (65.0)<0.0001
Baseline
 CC-IMTmean*0.738 (0.141)0.758 (0.145)0.0001
 BIF-IMTmean*1.131 (0.396)1.190 (0.429)0.0002
 IMTmean*0.880 (0.196)0.918 (0.206)<0.0001
 CC-IMTmax*1.185 (0.196)1.225 (0.412)0.0035
 BIF-IMTmax*1.840 (0.750)1.954 (0.829)0.0004
 IMTmax*1.998 (0.792)2.140 (0.862)<0.0001
 IMTmean-max*1.239 (0.292)1.290 (0.312)<0.0001
Progression
 CC-IMTmean0.008 (0.025)0.011 (0.034)0.0031
 BIF-IMTmean0.032 (0.070)0.040 (0.087)0.0134
 IMTmean0.018 (0.030)0.022 (0.035)0.0007
 CC-IMTmax0.013 (0.087)0.019 (0.113)0.1385
 BIF-IMTmax0.047 (0.153)0.058 (0.178)0.0700
 IMTmax0.040 (0.157)0.056 (0.178)0.0145
 IMTmean-max0.162 (0.140)0.188 (0.155)0.0482
 Fastest_progression0.024 (0.051)0.028 (0.054)<0.0001
  • Where values are presented as the mean (SD) for continuous measures and n (%) for categorical measures, unless otherwise indicated. T2D was defined as diagnosis, antidiabetic medication, or fasting glucose ≥7 mmol/L; Vitamin D, adjusted for season of blood sampling. All IMTs were measured in millimeters. P value was determined by t test. Boldface type indicates nominal significance. CC, common carotid; BIF, bifurcation.

  • *log10 transformed prior to analysis.