Table 1

Participants’ parameters before and after the intervention

HRE (n = 8 [6f, 2m])Intermediate group (n = 4 [2f, 2m])NRE (n = 8 [5f, 3m])HRE vs. NRE
BeforeAfterP*BeforeAfterP*BeforeAfterP*Time × group (P1)Before (P2)
ISI OGTT (1019L2/mol2)7.1 ± 6.811.8 ± 11.00.0027.8 ± 1.37.8 ± 1.00.89.8 ± 7.78.0 ± 5.60.016<0.00010.4
IAT (W/kg)
 Bike1.1 ± 0.41.3 ± 0.40.0041.2 ± 0.31.4 ± 0.40.0071.1 ± 0.21.2 ± 0.30.00060.91.0
 Treadmill0.9 ± 0.31.0 ± 0.30.0041.1 ± 0.31.2 ± 0.30.070.9 ± 0.11.0 ± 0.10.0030.50.6
Vo2 peak
 Bike (mL/min)2.04 ± 0.682.25 ± 0.510.092.37 ± 0.532.54 ± 0.35‖0.52.26 ± 0.622.42 ± 0.740.50.40.9
 Bike (mL/min/kg)22.3 ± 7.026.1 ± 6.80.0924.4 ± 4.325.7 ± 2.9‖0.522.7 ± 3.924.4 ± 5.90.50.40.7
 Treadmill (mL/min)2.2 ± 0.72.3 ± 0.50.33.0 ± 0.32.3 ± 0.2**2.5 ± 0.52.6 ± 0.70.21.00.3
 Treadmill (mL/min/kg)25.2 ± 7.226.9 ± 6.70.330.7 ± 2.225.2 ± 1.0**25.3 ± 3.527.0 ± 4.70.10.90.8
Age (years)51.6 ± 10.051.6 ± 10.041.0 ± 10.741.0 ± 10.743.8 ± 11.243.8 ± 11.20.2
BMI (kg/m2)32.0 ± 6.031.6 ± 6.10.0531.6 ± 1.931.5 ± 2.10.833.4 ± 4.633.1 ± 4.80.30.70.6
Total adipose tissue (kg)33 ± 1232 ± 120.0535 ± 534 ± 50.438 ± 1238 ± 120.40.30.4
Visceral adipose tissue (kg)3.8 ± 0.73.6 ± 1.00.25.1 ± 2.45 ± 2.10.75.6 ± 4.75.4 ± 4.60.70.41.0
Lean body mass (kg)53.7 ± 12.655.7 ± 13.3§0.469.6 ± 19.563.6 ± 13.6‖0.360.2 ± 18.860.7 ± 19.00.30.90.5
Blood pressure (mmHg)
 Systolic130 ± 18130 ± 80.9141 ± 14135 ± 210.3139 ± 16129 ± 1 00.0240.10.2
 Diastolic92 ± 1191 ± 80.892 ± 1288 ± 120.492 ± 1084 ± 80.0170.11.0
Heart rate (min−1)80 ± 1470 ± 60.03868 ± 1170 ± 150.476 ± 1171 ± 100.10.40.6
Glucose (mmol/L)
 At baseline5.6 ± 0.55.6 ± 0.60.85.4 ± 0.35.5 ± 0.50.45.7 ± 0.55.8 ± 0.60.40.40.8
 At 120 min 7.1 ± 1.46.0 ± 1.10.0236.1 ± 0.65.6 ± 0.60.0436.2 ± 0.77.0 ± 1.10.090.00370.1
Free fatty acids (µmol/L)719 ± 200532 ± 1950.1469 ± 171517 ± 1690.7550 ± 79590 ± 1490.60.10.1
Triglycerides (mg/dL)114 ± 3981 ± 310.0004135 ± 21118 ± 530.5103 ± 37105 ± 320.60.00030.6
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)49 ± 1249 ± 110.837 ± 841 ± 50.250 ± 1048 ± 110.0380.10.8
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL)118 ± 22108 ± 190.021104 ± 21103 ± 290.6124 ± 35120 ± 290.40.20.8
Leukocytes (1/µL)5,944 ± 9345,904 ± 2,0760.66,190 ± 1,7676,045 ± 1,4540.86,575 ± 2,4126,180 ± 1,5280.60.90.7
CRP (mg/dL)0.3 ± 0.20.6 ± 1.10.30.1 ± 0.10.1 ± 010.60.2 ± 0.30.4 ± 0.50.20.60.5
  • Data represent means ± SD. Before statistical analysis, data were loge-transformed to approximate normal distribution.

  • *Paired t test.

  • †Multivariate ANOVA, time × group.

  • ‡Two-sided t test, before-intervention values of HRE vs. NRE.

  • ¶From seven subjects available.

  • §From six subjects available. ‖From three subjects available.

  • **From two subjects available. CRP, C-reactive protein; f, female; m, male; OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test.