Table 3

Correlations between DNA methylation, gene expression of PPARGC1A, and clinical variables in the two groups of offspring exposed to intrauterine hyperglycemia (O-GDM and O-T1D) and the control group (O-BP)

PPARGC1A gene expressionMean PPARGC1A DNA methylation
O-GDMO-T1DO-BPO-GDMO-T1DO-BP
Skeletal muscle
 Maternal data (1978–1985)
  Fasting BG (mmol/L)0.16 (0.21)NANA−0.12 (0.39)NANA
  2-h BG during OGTT (mmol/L)0.12 (0.34)NANA−0.03 (0.84)NANA
  Mean BG in first trimesterNA0.26 (0.07)NANA−0.28 (0.05)NA
  Mean BG in third trimesterNA0.02 (0.83)NANA−0.19 (0.17)NA
  Pregestational BMI (kg/m2)−0.07 (0.60)−0.04 (0.80)−0.22 (0.21)0.13 (0.36)−0.05 (0.74)0.13 (0.45)
 Adult offspring data (2012–2013)
  Mean DNA methylation0.24 (0.13)−0.15 (0.29)−0.02 (0.92)
  Gene expression0.24 (0.13)−0.15 (0.29)−0.02 (0.92)
  BMI (kg/m2)0.24 (0.13)−0.12 (0.39)−0.28 (0.10)0.08 (0.59)−0.02 (0.89)0.29 (0.07)
  Total tissue fat (%)−0.02 (0.90)−0.08 (0.57)−0.48 (0.004)0.11 (0.93)−0.15 (0.28)−0.18 (0.27)
  HOMA-IR−0.30 (0.03)0.08 (0.59)−0.20 (0.30)0.14 (0.35)−0.08 (0.56)0.24 (0.19)
SAT
 Maternal data (1978–1985)
  Fasting BG (mmol/L)−0.12 (0.39)NANA0.03 (0.85)NANA
  2-h BG during OGTT (mmol/L)−0.03 (0.84)NANA−0.13 (0.35)NANA
  Mean BG in first trimesterNA0.20 (0.12)NANA0.14 (0.38)NA
  Mean BG in third trimesterNA0.10 (0.45)NANA0.001 (0.99)NA
  Pregestational BMI (kg/m2)−0.05 (0.72)0.20 (0.13)−0.17 (0.29)0.26 (0.07)0.09 (0.58)0.37 (0.03)
 Adult offspring data (2012–2013)
  Mean DNA methylation−0.45 (0.01)−0.15 (0.37)−0.11 (0.57)
  Gene expression−0.45 (0.01)−0.15 (0.37)−0.11 (0.57)
  BMI (kg/m2)−0.37 (0.003)−0.19 (0.14)−0.11 (0.57)0.29 (0.04)0.45 (0.002)0.20 (0.23)
  Total tissue fat (%)−0.29 (0.02)−0.26 (0.04)−0.56 (0.0001)0.12 (0.41)0.12 (0.41)0.12 (0.54)
  HOMA-IR−0.23 (0.09)−0.34 (0.009)−0.47 (0.004)0.38 (0.01)0.10 (0.26)0.11 (0.54)
  • Data are shown as the R coefficient (P value). P values <0.05 are bold.

  • BG, blood glucose; NA, not available.