Table 1

Participant characteristics among women with GDM and their matched control subjects, the NICHD Fetal Growth Study–Singletons cohort

Case subjects with GDM (n = 107)Control subjects (n = 214)P*
Age (years)30.5 ± 5.730.4 ± 5.4
Race/ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic white25 (23.4)50 (23.4)
 Non-Hispanic black15 (14.0)30 (14.0)
 Hispanic41 (38.3)82 (38.3)
 Asian/Pacific Islander26 (24.3)52 (24.3)
Education0.18
 Less than high school17 (15.9)26 (12.1)
 High school graduate or equivalent15 (14.0)23 (10.7)
 More than high school75 (70.1)165 (77.1)
Insurance0.43
 Private or managed care68 (63.5)143 (66.8)
 Medicaid, other39 (36.5)69 (32.2)
 Self-pay02 (0.9)
Marital status0.12
 Never married11 (10.3)35 (16.4)
 Married/living with a partner92 (86.0)167 (78.0)
 Divorced/separated4 (3.7)12 (5.6)
Nulliparity48 (44.9)96 (44.9)1
Family history of diabetes40 (37.4)48 (22.4)0.003
Prepregnancy BMI (kg/m2)<0.001
 <25.037 (34.6)123 (57.5)
 25.0–29.935 (32.7)56 (26.2)
 30.0–34.920 (18.7)17 (7.9)
 35.0–44.915 (14.0)16 (7.5)
 Unknown/missing02 (0.9)
Smoking 6 months before pregnancy4 (3.7)1 (0.5)0.06
Alcoholic beverage consumption 3 months before pregnancy61 (57.0)137 (64.0)0.22
  • Data are presented as n (%) for categorical variables and mean (SD) for continuous variables.

  • *P values for differences between case and control subjects were obtained by mixed-effect linear regression models for continuous variables and binomial/multinomial logistic regression with generalized estimating equations for binary/multilevel categorical variables, accounting for matched case-control pairs. P values are not shown for matching variables (age and race/ethnicity).