Table 2

Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) for the associations of GDM risk with quartiles of IGF-I, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3 concentrations and molar ratio of IGF-I to IGFBP-3 at gestational weeks 10–14 and 15–26, the NICHD Fetal Growth Study–Singletons cohort

Case subjects (n)Control subjects (n)Crude modelMultivariable model*
Gestational weeks 10–14
 IGF-I (ng/mL)
  Q1: 60.0–125.815541.001.00
  Q2: 126.0–156.529532.10 (0.96, 4.59)1.94 (0.77, 4.84)
  Q3: 156.6–194.524541.74 (0.80, 3.78)2.20 (0.92, 5.28)
  Q4: 194.6–378.336532.87 (1.28, 6.42)2.93 (1.18, 7.30)
  P for trend0.0180.023
  Per SD increment1.37 (1.04, 1.81)1.37 (1.01, 1.86)
 IGFBP-2 (ng/mL)
  Q1: 37.3–82.558541.001.00
  Q2: 82.6–105.220530.24 (0.11, 0.51)0.22 (0.09, 0.55)
  Q3: 105.8–145.819540.21 (0.09, 0.46)0.14 (0.05, 0.38)
  Q4: 146.0–311.77530.05 (0.02, 0.16)0.04 (0.01, 0.16)
  P for trend<0.001<0.001
  Per SD increment0.40 (0.26, 0.60)0.42 (0.26, 0.67)
 IGFBP-3 (ng/mL)
  Q1: 2,729.0–3,876.419541.001.00
  Q2: 3,876.5–4,422.723531.29 (0.62, 2.68)1.06 (0.46, 2.42)
  Q3: 4,434.2–4,970.134541.93 (0.94, 3.94)1.91 (0.84, 4.37)
  Q4: 4,974.8–7,426.528531.76 (0.72, 4.26)1.66 (0.61, 4.52)
  P for trend0.1220.158
  Per SD increment1.31 (0.93, 1.84)1.35 (0.94, 1.95)
 Molar ratio of IGF-I to IGFBP-3
  Q1: 0.035–0.11213541.001.00
  Q2: 0.113–0.14132532.85 (1.27, 6.42)3.26 (1.26, 8.45)
  Q3: 0.143–0.17528542.72 (1.12, 6.58)2.69 (0.97, 7.46)
  Q4: 0.178–0.35531533.44 (1.33, 8.88)3.31 (1.10, 9.98)
  P for trend0.020.067
  Per SD increment1.27 (0.94, 1.72)1.24 (0.88, 1.75)
Gestational weeks 15–26
 IGF-I (ng/mL)
  Q1: 8.0–134.411541.001.00
  Q2: 135.7–169.619531.88 (0.80, 4.46)2.19 (0.85, 5.63)
  Q3: 169.8–216.027543.06 (1.27, 7.38)4.35 (1.55, 12.2)
  Q4: 218.6–428.737535.39 (2.13, 13.6)5.53 (1.94, 15.8)
  P for trend<0.0010.001
  Per SD increment1.99 (1.41, 2.82)2.19 (1.48, 3.23)
 IGFBP-2 (ng/mL)
  Q1: 37.9–71.639541.001.00
  Q2: 73.0–96.226530.61 (0.31, 1.23)0.55 (0.23, 1.32)
  Q3: 96.4–127.525540.54 (0.26, 1.11)0.64 (0.27, 1.56)
  Q4: 128.1–288.74530.07 (0.02, 0.25)0.03 (0.001, 0.23)
  P for trend<0.001<0.001
  Per SD increment0.40 (0.26, 0.60)0.34 (0.20, 0.59)
 IGFBP-3 (ng/mL)
  Q1: 2,575.7–3,977.118541.001.00
  Q2: 3,981.2–4,451.119531.15 (0.54, 2.47)1.11 (0.47, 2.61)
  Q3: 4,468.8–5,006.029541.89 (0.88, 4.05)2.05 (0.84, 4.99)
  Q4: 5,031.5–7,854.628532.24 (0.94, 5.33)2.27 (0.86, 6.00)
  P for trend0.0500.067
  Per SD increment1.26 (0.89, 1.79)1.34 (0.90, 1.99)
 Molar ratio of IGF-I to IGFBP-3
  Q1: 0.007–0.12011541.001.00
  Q2: 0.120–0.15422532.63 (1.10, 6.24)3.27 (1.22, 8.74)
  Q3: 0.155–0.19324543.48 (1.32, 9.15)3.61 (1.25, 10.4)
  Q4: 0.194–0.42737538.31 (2.90, 23.8)10.5 (3.26, 34.1)
  P for trend<0.001<0.001
  Per SD increment2.23 (1.49, 3.33)2.33 (1.51, 3.60)
  • Q, quartile.

  • *Adjusted for maternal age (years), gestational age at blood collection (weeks), family history of diabetes (yes/no), and prepregnancy BMI (<24.9, 25.0–25.9, 30.0–34.9, or 35.0–44.9 kg/m2).

  • †Timing of blood sample collection all preceded the diagnosis of GDM.

  • ‡Range of biomarker concentrations within each quartile among control subjects without GDM.