Table 1

Characteristics of the study population by glucose tolerance status

NGT(N = 763)Prediabetes(N = 514)Type 2 diabetes(N = 160)P value
Age (years)65.7 (7.5)66.8 (6.6)a66.1 (6.5)0.020
Women, % (95% CI)52.2 (48.6; 55.8)43.2 (38.9; 47.6)a33.8 (26.5; 41.6)a,b<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)26.0 (4.0)27.9 (4.4)a29.8 (5.6)a,b<0.001
Fasting glucose (mmol/L)5.6 (0.4)6.3 (0.4)a7.3 (1.0)a,b<0.001
30-min glucose (mmol/L)8.3 (1.4)9.7 (1.2)a11.4 (1.9)a,b<0.001
120-min glucose (mmol/L)5.6 (1.1)7.4 (1.7)a10.6 (3.1)a,b<0.001
Fasting insulin (pmol/L)30.4 (29.2; 31.7)43.3 (41.2; 45.6)a58.9 (53.0;65.6)a,b<0.001
30-min insulin (pmol/L)205.6 (196.6; 215.1)223.0 (210.0; 236.8)a229.0 (207.5; 252.6)a0.038
120 min insulin (pmol/L)134.8 (128.3; 141.5)247.4 (231.5; 264.3)a357.8 (317.1; 403.8)a,b<0.001
Glucagon suppression, 0–30 min (%)*16.5 (13.9; 19.1)9.5 (5.7; 13.2)a−3.8 (−12.2; 3.9)a,b<0.001
Glucagon suppression, 30–120 min (%)ǂ27.9 (25.3; 30.5)39.6 (37.1; 42.0)a48.3 (44.4; 52.0)a,b<0.001
Glucagon suppression, 0–120 min (%)§39.7 (37.3; 42)45.2 (42.6; 47.7)a46.2 (41.7; 50.5)a0.002
  • Data are the mean (SD) or geometric mean (95% CI), unless otherwise indicated.

  • *Calculated as: (1 − [glucagon30 min/glucagon0 min]) × 100.

  • ǂCalculated as: (1 − [glucagon120 min/glucagon30 min]) × 100.

  • §Calculated as: (1 − [glucagon120 min/glucagon0 min]) × 100.

  • aP < 0.05 vs. NGT.

  • bP < 0.05 vs. prediabetes.