Table 1

Characteristics of the KORA F4 cross-sectional study samples (n = 1,604)

Clinical parametersNGTIGTndt-T2Dmt-T2D
n1,14327211574
Age, years58.9 (8.5)63.8 (8.1)65.1 (7.1)66.2 (7.5)
Male, %45506158
BMI, kg/m227.0 (4.3)29.8 (4.7)31.0 (4.8)32.0 (5.6)
Waist, cm92 (12.9)100.2 (14.3)104.9 (12.1)106.7 (13.0)
Physical activity, % >1 h per week63544836
High alcohol intake, %*20182519
Smoker, %1881215
Systolic BP, mmHg121.6 (17.7)129.0 (19.0)134.3 (19.2)130.7 (18.2)
HDL-C, mg/dL58.9 (14.8)54.4 (14.2)49.6 (11.5)50.4 (9.6)
LDL-C, mg/dL140.7 (34.3)144.5 (36.2)136.6 (36.0)124.1 (28.3)
Total cholesterol, mg/dL223.4 (37.7)226.4 (41.5)214.1 (37.0)203.8 (37.8)
Triglycerides, mg/dL118.5 (84.6)150.7 (89.0)172.5 (128.7)177.5 (140.5)
HbA1c, %5.4 (0.3)5.6 (0.3)6.3 (0.9)6.8 (1.1)
HbA1c, mmol/mol35.7 (3.2)38.1 (3.9)44.91 (9.9)51.2 (11.6)
Fasting glucose, mg/dL93.2 (7.5)101.2 (10.6)126.6 (30.5)142.0 (36.0)
2-h postglucose load, mg/dL100.8 (20.6)162.6 (17.5)216.0 (50.7)
Time since diagnosis, years1.4 (2.6)7.4 (6.6)
Insulin, µIU/mL7.1 (26.1)10.1 (10.9)14.3 (14.3)11.6 (11.0)
Leptin, ng/mL17.2 (19.2)24.2 (21.3)26.8 (21.2)27.8 (25.0)
Statin usage, %12152836
β-Blocker usage, %16314338
ACE inhibitor usage, %10213245
ARB usage, %8101714
Insulin therapy, %0000
Metformin usage, %000100
Parental T2D, %28303749
  • KORA F4 study characteristics (including solely subjects with available Metabolon measurements). Percentages of individuals or means (SD) are shown for each variable and each group (NGT, IGT, ndt-T2D, and mt-T2D).

  • *≥20 g/day for women; ≥40 g/day for men.

  • n = 81.

  • ‡For newly diagnosed T2D patients (n = 74), years since T2D diagnosis was defined as 0.