Table 4

Citrulline remains significantly associated with metformin treatment in human serum in a longitudinal analysis (KORA S4 → F4)

Crude GEE model
mt-T2D (n = 37) vs. nonmetformin-treated (n = 646) participants§Full GEE model
mt-T2D (n = 33) vs. nonmetformin-treated (n = 629) participants§
Metaboliteβ (95% CI) per SDP valueFDRβ (95% CI) per SDP valueFDR
Citrulline−0.67 (−0.98, −0.36)2.03E-051.76E-03−0.61 (−0.94, −0.28)2.96E-043.21E-04
X-213650.41 (0.12, 0.69)5.62E-030.0110.14 (−0.17, 0.45)0.3740.024
  • GEE model with crude and full adjustment was used to assess the associations between metformin treatment and metabolite serum values in the longitudinal study of 683 participants with no antidiabetes medical treatment at KORA S4. Of these participants, 37 started metformin treatment after KORA S4. Because of missing confounding information, the models with full adjustment were based on fewer participants. Significant metabolites are highlighted in boldface type with respect to Bonferroni correction (P < 0.05/2 = 0.025) and the FDR.

  • §Includes participants with NGT, isolated IFG, IGT, and ntd-T2D.

  • ¶After exclusion of individuals because of missing confounding information.