Table 2

Characteristics of the KORA S4 → F4 prospective study samples (n = 683)

Clinical parametersKORA S4 w/o metformin§ → KORA F4 w/o metformin§KORA S4 w/o metformin§ → KORA F4 w/ metformin
S4F4P valueS4F4P value
n6466463737
Age, years61.4 (4.2)68.5 (4.2)63.4 (3.8)70.4 (3.9)
Male, %51515454
BMI, kg/m227.9 (3.9)28.2 (4.2)0.232.8 (4.3)32 (4.5)0.49
Waist, cm93.9 (11.0)96.8 (11.9)1.72E-05106.3 (11.3)106.7 (12.3)0.87
Physical activity, % >1 h per week47575.47E-0432430.47
High alcohol intake, %*20190.6527160.4
Smoker, %1389.00E-031480.71
Systolic BP, mmHg132.1 (18.7)128.2 (19.6)3.12E-04144.9 (18.1)131.6 (18.3)2.43E-03
HDL-C, mg/dL59.1 (16.3)56.7 (14.2)0.0253.4 (11.8)52.4 (7.9)0.69
LDL-C, mg/dL154.5 (40.8)142.5 (36.9)1.86E-08143.5 (37.6)123.5 (23.6)0.02
Total cholesterol, mg/dL245.5 (42.0)225.2 (40.7)2.2E-16234.1 (41.0)202.1 (33.6)5.20E-04
Triglycerides, mg/dL129.9 (76.4)132.7 (83.4)0.56170.6 (169)154.5 (159.2)0.79
HbA1c, %5.6 (0.3)5.6 (0.5)0.536.4 (0.9)6.6 (0.7)0.14
HbA1c, mmol/mol37.6 (3.7)38.0 (5.7)0.5346.8 (10.3)48.3 (7.8)0.14
Fasting glucose, mg/dL99.7 (10.9)100.7 (17.6)0.53130.7 (30.1)129.6 (28.3)0.9
2-h postglucose load, mg/dL115.1 (37.1)126.9 (40.8)8.34E-09205.5 (76.8)
Statin usage, %10228.05E-108290.04
β-Blocker usage, %17315.16E-0916290.27
ACE inhibitor usage, %8212.72E-1116513.18E-03
ARB usage, %3123.67E-103140.2
Insulin therapy, %0000
Metformin usage, %000100
Parental T2D, %25254747
  • Percentages of individuals or means (SD) of participants (with available Metabolon measurements for KORA S4 and F4) are shown for each variable and each group. w/o, without; w/, with.

  • *>40 g/day in men; >20 g/day in women.

  • §Includes participants with NGT, isolated IFG, IGT, and ntd-T2D.

  • ‖Normally distributed (every other distribution is not normally distributed).