Table 1

Characteristics of women with prior GDM by gestational weight gain

Gestational weight gainP
InadequateAdequateExcessive
N150372549
Age (years)33.0 ± 3.632.4 ± 3.531.9 ± 3.4<0.001
Follow-up time (years)2.0 ± 0.62.0 ± 0.62.1 ± 0.70.007
Prepregnancy BMI (kg/m2)22.1 ± 2.922.4 ± 3.024.0 ± 3.4<0.001
Weight (kg)
 Prepregnancy56.6 ± 8.257.1 ± 8.362.0 ± 9.4<0.001
 Predelivery65.4 ± 7.470.6 ± 7.382.9 ± 9.3<0.001
 Postpartum57.9 ± 8.958.7 ± 8.765.9 ± 11.4<0.001
Fasting glucose (mmol/L)
 At GDM diagnosis5.3 ± 0.85.3 ± 0.85.4 ± 0.70.05
 Postpartum5.6 ± 1.35.3 ± 0.85.4 ± 0.90.06
2-h glucose (mmol/L)
 At GDM diagnosis9.3 ± 1.49.2 ± 1.39.0 ± 1.10.004
 Postpartum7.5 ± 3.17.0 ± 2.36.9 ± 2.20.04
HbA1c (%)
 At GDM diagnosis5.8 ± 0.65.8 ± 0.65.8 ± 0.60.37
 Postpartum5.7 ± 0.95.6 ± 0.65.6 ± 0.80.66
HbA1c (mmol/mol)
 At GDM diagnosis40 ± 440 ± 440 ± 40.37
 Postpartum39 ± 538 ± 438 ± 50.66
Family history of diabetes (%)32.732.530.80.82
Current smoking (%)4.00.82.40.05
Current alcohol drinking (%)21.319.421.50.72
Leisure time physical activity (%)
 0 min/day76.780.780.50.27
 1 to <30 min/day23.317.717.7
 ≥30 min/day0.01.61.8
Sitting time (h/day)2.9 ± 2.03.1 ± 2.03.5 ± 2.30.002
Total energy intake (kcal/day)1,712 ± 4651,670 ± 4241,679 ± 4470.59
Dietary zinc intake (mg)10.5 ± 3.410.1 ± 3.110.2 ± 3.30.66
rs13266634 CC genotype (%)38.737.938.60.89
  • Data are mean ± SD for continuous variables or percentage for categorical variables. P values were calculated by general linear models for continuous variables or χ2 test for categorical variables.