Table 2

Baseline and 6-month metabolic parameters and daily diet macro- and micronutrients in the two study groups

CRSD
Baseline6 monthsBaseline6 monthsP value
Metabolic parameters
 RMR (kcal)1,614.3 (236.8)1,558.7 (233.6)**1,544.0 (255.7)1,536.1 (250.7)°0.0001
 MET (h/day)34.5 (3.7)34.8 (4.2)34.6 (3.1)35.0 (4.9)0.9293
 TDEE (kcal)2,327.4 (459.2)2,254.3 (405.9)°2,230.8 (430.0)2,245.0 (523.1)0.1630
 Calorie intake (kcal)1,899.5 (496.5)1,570.9 (384.6)**1,896.5 (524.1)1,760.5 (423.8)°0.0061
Macronutrients
 Protein (%)17.7 (2.2)20.1 (2.6)°°18.5 (2.5)18.3 (2.6)0.0006
 Total lipid (%)34.5 (5.7)35.7 (4.8)34.4 (5.1)34.4 (6.0)0.2719
 Carbohydrate (%)48.0 (6.9)44.4 (5.3)*47.2 (6.4)47.5 (7.8)0.0132
 Protein (g)81.0 (19.6)74.6 (18.3)°82.4 (20.6)75.8 (20.0)*0.9686
 Total lipid (g)70.9 (22.3)59.8 (12.1)°°68.9 (21.2)63.2 (16.1)°0.1134
 Carbohydrate (g)234.4 (69.1)183.9 (61.2)**230.2 (76.5)211.8 (60.3)°0.0074
 Total dietary fiber (g)23.6 (8.7)23.9 (6.5)20.1 (6.9)18.7 (6.0)0.0053
 Alcohol (g)8.3 (10.9)5.9 (7.4)12.2 (13.4)13.8 (13.0)0.0047
 MUFA (g)30.5 (9.7)24.8 (5.2)**28.8 (9.4)26.9 (8.2)0.0488
 PUFA (g)9.3 (3.8)9.7 (3.1)8.6 (3.8)8.2 (2.8)0.0534
 Saturated fats (g)22.8 (7.9)16.4 (4.4)**23.0 (7.4)20.7 (6.3)°0.0001
 Animal protein (g)52.5 (15.1)46.7 (11.1)°56.1 (15.0)50.4 (15.0)*0.0337
 Vegetable protein (g)27.3 (10.5)27.9 (10.5)25.1 (8.9)24.3 (8.8)0.2098
Micronutrients
 Calcium (mg)857.7 (341.8)849.4 (250.1)824.8 (226.6)775.8 (347.0)0.3771
 Iron (mg)12.6 (4.3)14.2 (4.5)°11.7 (4.0)11.3 (3.6)0.0042
 Magnesium (mg)225.75 (89.9)230.25 (63.8)252.5 (68.1)232.7 (68.1)0.0335
 Phosphorus (mg)1,287.9 (387.7)1,280.55 (280.1)1,251.0 (331.0)1,174.2 (359.4)0.0099
 Potassium (mg)3,111.3 (912.4)3,241.0 (610.35)2,911.4 (728.9)2,815.1 (689.5)0.0109
 Sodium (mg)2,024.1 (874.3)1,821.1 (854.3)2,026.8 (699.2)1,906.7 (800.9)0.6323
 Zinc (mg)11.5 (3.3)11.25 (2.5)11.1 (2.8)10.4 (3.0)°0.2234
 Copper (mg)1.0 (0.47)0.94 (0.29)0.95 (0.37)0.94 (0.32)0.8506
 Selenium (μg)36.9 (14.1)38.2 (15.6)38.8 (15.4)38.0 (16.5)0.7106
 Vitamin A (μg)1,137.4 (648.3)1,311.1 (823.9)1,208.7 (643.0)1,245.8 (677.1)0.5430
 Vitamin D (μg)3.0 (2.4)3.0 (1.9)2.5 (1.5)2.5 (1.7)0.3194
 Vitamin E (mg)10.0 (3.4)10.7 (2.4)8.7 (2.7)9.2 (3.2)0.1025
 Vitamin C (mg)137.0 (70.4)170.8 (77.5)106.8 (49.3)101.5 (48.7)0.0002
 Thiamin (mg)1.2 (0.34)1.1 (0.33)1.1 (0.34)1.0 (0.29)0.1313
 Riboflavin (mg)1.6 (0.52)1.7 (0.41)1.6 (0.45)1.5 (0.44)0.0232
 Niacin (mg)20.4 (6.9)19.8 (5.8)21.3 (6.4)18.8 (4.5)*0.1798
 Pantothenic acid (mg)2.1 (0.79)2.3 (0.66)2.4 (0.71)2.3 (0.79)0.3889
 Vitamin B6 (mg)1.8 (0.47)1.9 (0.44)1.7 (0.43)1.6 (0.40)0.0587
 Folate (μg)295.7 (112.5)337.6 (106.3)261.1 (105.6)265.4 (89.5)0.0066
 β-Carotene (mg)3,754.9 (3,187.05)4,545.2 (2,018.3)3,320.9 (2,279.7)3,572.6 (2,150.1)0.0332
  • Data are mean (SD).

  • MUFA, monounsaturated fatty acid; PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  • †Changes in the CR group compared with the SD group at 6 months after adjustment for baseline values by ANCOVA;

  • °P < 0.05;

  • *P ≤ 0.01;

  • °°P ≤ 0.001;

  • **P ≤ 0.0001 vs baseline within the same treatment group.