Table 1

Characteristics of study participants

TotalWith metabolic syndromeWithout metabolic syndrome
N = 3,987n = 393 (9.9%)n = 3,594 (90.1%)P value
Male sex62.4 [2,488]85.5 [336]59.9 [2,152]<0.001
Age, years45.7 (4.2)47.6 (4.1)45.5 (4.2)<0.001
BMI, kg/m226.1 (3.8)30.9 (3.5)25.5 (3.4)<0.001
Waist circumference, cm89.1 (11.9)104.5 (9.3)87.4 (10.9)<0.001
Triglycerides, mg/dL93.4 (54.5)157.4 (79.7)86.4 (45.9)<0.001
HDL-cholesterol, mg/dL49.2 (12.2)38.5 (7.3)50.4 (12.0)<0.001
Total cholesterol, mg/dL200.7 (33.0)209.8 (36.1)199.7 (32.5)<0.001
LDL-cholesterol, mg/dL132.6 (29.6)139.6 (31.4)131.9 (29.3)<0.001
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg116.0 (12.4)129.1 (13.0)114.6 (11.5)<0.001
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg72.4 (9.4)82.7 (9.4)71.2 (8.7)<0.001
Fasting glucose, mg/dL89.4 (8.7)99.7 (9.1)88.3 (7.9)<0.001
Insulin, pmol/L5.9 (3.5)10.9 (4.9)5.4 (2.9)<0.001
HOMA-IR1.3 (0.9)2.7 (1.3)1.2 (0.7)<0.001
HbA1c, %5.4 (0.4)5.6 (0.4)5.4 (0.4)<0.001
HbA1c, mmol/mol36 (4.4)38 (4.4)36 (4.4)<0.001
Ox-LDL, units/L51.8 (17.0)61.4 (19.5)50.7 (16.3)<0.001
Insulin resistance8.2 [328]44.5 [175]4.3 [153]<0.001
Obesity14.0 [560]56.2 [221]9.4 [339]<0.001
Overweight44.3 [1,765]39.4 [155]44.8 [1,610]0.048
Smoking28.2 [1,123]30.5 [120]27.9 [1,003]0.298
  • Data are presented as mean (standard deviation) or percentage [count].