Table 3

Lipophilic and high–molecular weight metabolites differing in levels between LADA, T1D, and T2D

MetaboliteqPLADA vs. T1DLADA vs. T2DT1D vs. T2DT1DLADAT2D
LPC(20:3)1.44E-122.44E-14****NS****1 ± 0.0931.82 ± 0.1052.13 ± 0.104
LPC(16:1)3.07E-121.04E-13****NS****1 ± 0.0731.98 ± 0.1702.59 ± 0.211
Phe/Phe7.83E-123.98E-13*********1 ± 0.0721.71 ± 0.1052.22 ± 0.154
LPC(20:5)1.11E-107.52E-12****NS****1 ± 0.1292.67 ± 0.3462.89 ± 0.282
LPC(14:0)2.63E-102.23E-11****NS****1 ± 0.0831.96 ± 0.1812.43 ± 0.231
PC(36:5)3.07E-103.13E-11****NS****1 ± 0.0921.83 ± 0.1292.07 ± 0.113
PC(40:6)4.18E-085.48E-09****NS****1 ± 0.0911.77 ± 0.1681.88 ± 0.123
Uric acid1.39E-072.13E-08***NS****1 ± 0.1031.67 ± 0.1442.20 ± 0.159
LPC(20:2)1.40E-072.38E-08****NS****1 ± 0.0731.49 ± 0.0851.58 ± 0.076
LPC(17:1)3.47E-076.47E-08****NS****1 ± 0.0611.67 ± 0.1571.71 ± 0.126
LPC(20:4)5.78E-071.18E-07***NS****1 ± 0.0651.35 ± 0.0731.49 ± 0.058
C14:1 carnitine8.25E-071.82E-07****NS****1 ± 0.1761.97 ± 0.2392.92 ± 0.421
Tyrosine9.54E-072.26E-07**NS****1 ± 0.0641.26 ± 0.0541.51 ± 0.067
C16 carnitine1.79E-064.55E-07***NS****1 ± 0.1231.75 ± 0.1812.36 ± 0.245
Hypoxanthine2.26E-066.14E-07***NS****1 ± 0.3133.26 ± 0.7754.80 ± 0.924
PC(34:3)2.44E-067.02E-07****NS****1 ± 0.0571.37 ± 0.0641.45 ± 0.065
LPC(16:0)2.82E-068.62E-07***NS****1 ± 0.0331.14 ± 0.0261.20 ± 0.021
C14 carnitine5.72E-061.84E-06***NS****1 ± 0.1492.17 ± 0.2753.19 ± 0.439
C18:1 carnitine1.58E-055.36E-06**NS****1 ± 0.1361.62 ± 0.1712.12 ± 0.218
PC(38:6)3.30E-051.18E-05***NS****1 ± 0.0701.35 ± 0.0671.36 ± 0.050
C8 carnitine4.97E-051.85E-05***NS****1 ± 0.1712.05 ± 0.2702.75 ± 0.432
C12 carnitine8.76E-053.45E-05***NS****1 ± 0.1371.90 ± 0.2402.52 ± 0.336
Prothionamide8.76E-053.56E-05**NS****1 ± 0.2013.47 ± 0.5494.48 ± 0.618
LPC(15:0)8.93E-053.78E-05**NS****1 ± 0.0721.40 ± 0.1141.52 ± 0.097
Cinnamic acid1.10E-044.86E-05*NS****1 ± 0.0651.25 ± 0.0541.53 ± 0.077
C18 carnitine2.05E-049.37E-05**NS****1 ± 0.1001.37 ± 0.1361.57 ± 0.126
LPC(18:0)2.82E-041.34E-04**NS***1 ± 0.0401.15 ± 0.0341.20 ± 0.029
C10 carnitine4.27E-042.10E-04**NS***1 ± 0.2182.28 ± 0.4603.06 ± 0.512
Inosine6.32E-043.21E-04NSNS***1 ± 0.3212.65 ± 0.5823.77 ± 0.665
PC(36:1)7.00E-043.68E-04NSNS***1 ± 0.0690.78 ± 0.0530.64 ± 0.042
C5 carnitine1.00E-035.45E-04*NS***1 ± 0.1031.55 ± 0.1481.79 ± 0.215
LPC(18:1)1.32E-037.37E-04*NS***1 ± 0.0391.12 ± 0.0301.15 ± 0.023
C18:2 carnitine1.89E-031.09E-03*NS***1 ± 0.1321.39 ± 0.1561.87 ± 0.220
C8:1 carnitine2.19E-031.30E-03**NS****1 ± 0.1361.62 ± 0.1712.12 ± 0.218
Leu/Ile3.62E-032.21E-03NSNSNS1 ± 0.1211.22 ± 0.1831.87 ± 0.248
3-amino 2-naphtoic acid5.74E-033.60E-03NSNS**1 ± 0.0471.11 ± 0.0391.23 ± 0.048
PC(32:1)1.01E-026.48E-03NSNS**1 ± 0.0971.46 ± 0.1691.80 ± 0.192
Tyr/Val1.02E-026.73E-03NSNS**1 ± 0.0831.86 ± 0.1572.10 ± 0.149
LPC(17:0)1.13E-027.68E-03*NS*1 ± 0.0671.24 ± 0.0821.24 ± 0.062
C10:2 carnitine1.42E-029.88E-03NSNS**1 ± 0.0761.13 ± 0.0711.42 ± 0.162
C6 carnitine2.22E-021.58E-02NS*NS1 ± 0.0400.88 ± 0.0311.04 ± 0.046
Pipecolic acid3.68E-022.68E-02*NSNS1 ± 0.0590.68 ± 0.0420.60 ± 0.035
Glu/Phe4.00E-022.98E-02NSNSNS1 ± 0.0961.04 ± 0.0901.25 ± 0.092
4-Acetamidobutanoate4.03E-023.07E-02NSNS*1 ± 0.1991.91 ± 0.4842.52 ± 0.503
Betaine4.47E-023.56E-02NSNS***1 ± 0.0521.14 ± 0.0461.27 ± 0.056
  • Data are expressed as the mean fold to T1D ± SEM. Differences were assessed by ANOVA followed by post hoc Tukey test on log2-transformed data. P values were corrected for multiple comparison using the false discovery rate method. NS, not significant.

  • *P/q < 0.05;

  • **P/q < 0.01;

  • ***P/q < 0.001;

  • ****P/q < 0.0001.