Table 2

Low–molecular weight metabolites differing in levels between LADA, T1D, and T2D

MetaboliteqPLADA vs. T1DLADA vs. T2DT1D vs. T2DT1DLADAT2D
Alanine5.86E-188.02E-20*********1 ± 0.0401.41 ± 0.0421.60 ± 0.036
Uric acid5.03E-151.38E-16**********1 ± 0.0771.66 ± 0.0792.13 ± 0.082
Tyrosine8.06E-123.31E-13**********1 ± 0.0471.33 ± 0.0471.64 ± 0.065
Isocitrate7.55E-114.13E-12*********1 ± 0.0671.30 ± 0.0501.57 ± 0.052
C16:01.10E-107.53E-12****NS****1 ± 0.0651.45 ± 0.0771.76 ± 0.087
Myo-inositol1.48E-101.42E-11**********1 ± 0.0381.26 ± 0.0431.45 ± 0.045
Phenylalanine1.48E-101.42E-11**********1 ± 0.0401.35 ± 0.0671.56 ± 0.058
C18:02.51E-102.76E-11****NS****1 ± 0.0331.18 ± 0.0291.26 ± 0.030
Lysine7.09E-108.74E-11*********1 ± 0.0451.25 ± 0.0361.45 ± 0.044
Ornithine21.94E-092.66E-10****NS****1 ± 0.0681.37 ± 0.0571.55 ± 0.056
Anthranilic acid2.16E-093.26E-10****NS****1 ± 0.0591.80 ± 0.1331.96 ± 0.154
C22:61.09E-081.79E-09****NS****1 ± 0.0901.69 ± 0.1471.96 ± 0.124
C17/01.57E-082.80E-09****NS****1 ± 0.0681.38 ± 0.0711.58 ± 0.076
Quinic acid4.12E-087.91E-09****NS****1 ± 0.2012.69 ± 0.3282.62 ± 0.376
Citric acid1.02E-072.10E-08********1 ± 0.0421.29 ± 0.0671.47 ± 0.058
2-hydroxyglutarate1.99E-074.35E-08****NS****1 ± 0.0271.24 ± 0.0491.32 ± 0.044
Pyroglutamic acid2.42E-075.64E-08***NS****1 ± 0.0241.15 ± 0.0251.22 ± 0.030
C18:13.88E-079.56E-08***NS****1 ± 0.0921.29 ± 0.0661.51 ± 0.071
Cholesterol6.97E-071.81E-07***NS****1 ± 0.0391.14 ± 0.0431.36 ± 0.048
Hypoxanthine1.30E-063.56E-07***NS****1 ± 0.1481.89 ± 0.2492.28 ± 0.218
Proline1.66E-064.78E-07***NS****1 ± 0.0591.34 ± 0.0691.44 ± 0.052
C14:05.66E-061.71E-06**NS****1 ± 0.1511.28 ± 0.1141.53 ± 0.094
Glycerol 2-phosphate6.68E-062.10E-06******1 ± 0.0491.13 ± 0.0411.34 ± 0.040
Malic acid7.27E-062.39E-06******1 ± 0.0511.28 ± 0.0901.57 ± 0.088
C20:49.67E-063.31E-06******1 ± 0.0531.15 ± 0.0451.39 ± 0.062
Homocysteine1.05E-053.75E-06**NS****1 ± 0.0561.23 ± 0.0571.44 ± 0.072
Cysteine1.14E-054.23E-06***NS****1 ± 0.0951.44 ± 0.1331.56 ± 0.112
Fumaric acid1.64E-056.29E-06NS*****1 ± 0.0391.15 ± 0.0531.36 ± 0.059
C18:21.68E-056.69E-06**NS****1 ± 0.0741.21 ± 0.0621.37 ± 0.058
Aspartic acid2.18E-058.96E-06*NS****1 ± 0.0701.28 ± 0.0751.55 ± 0.084
Histidine3.19E-051.37E-05***NS****1 ± 0.0461.19 ± 0.0331.27 ± 0.047
Succinic acid3.19E-051.40E-05NS*****1 ± 0.0341.11 ± 0.0381.32 ± 0.057
Erythritol4.99E-052.26E-05**NS****1 ± 0.0390.81 ± 0.0430.73 ± 0.037
Taurine9.78E-054.56E-05**NS****1 ± 0.0491.33 ± 0.0731.35 ± 0.058
Glycerol1.75E-048.38E-05*NS****1 ± 0.0831.19 ± 0.0801.43 ± 0.077
Tryptophane1.97E-049.73E-05**NS****1 ± 0.0481.18 ± 0.0421.29 ± 0.048
Arginine product2.18E-041.11E-04**NS***1 ± 0.0451.20 ± 0.0421.24 ± 0.047
Ornithine 13.96E-042.06E-04**NS***1 ± 0.0451.19 ± 0.0381.21 ± 0.044
Methyl malate6.65E-043.55E-04NSNS***1 ± 0.1731.27 ± 0.1701.83 ± 0.255
Glutamic acid6.86E-043.76E-04NSNS***1 ± 0.0991.29 ± 0.1111.62 ± 0.135
Threonine9.42E-045.29E-04*NS***1 ± 0.0391.13 ± 0.0351.23 ± 0.044
Creatinine1.38E-037.94E-04**NS**1 ± 0.0501.20 ± 0.0481.25 ± 0.057
Beta-alanine1.65E-039.97E-04NSNS***1 ± 0.0601.16 ± 0.0611.35 ± 0.073
Valine1.65E-039.90E-04*NS**1 ± 0.0581.14 ± 0.0431.18 ± 0.036
Glyceric acid1.80E-031.11E-03NSNS***1 ± 0.0541.18 ± 0.0641.28 ± 0.050
Xylose2.66E-031.68E-03NSNS**1 ± 0.0721.64 ± 0.2232.17 ± 0.327
Leucine3.56E-032.29E-03*NS**1 ± 0.0481.11 ± 0.0381.17 ± 0.036
Asparagine3.94E-032.59E-03*NS**1 ± 0.0761.25 ± 0.0661.32 ± 0.079
Isoleucine6.39E-034.29E-03NSNS*1 ± 0.0641.12 ± 0.0511.13 ± 0.039
Indole 3-acetic acid9.31E-036.38E-03*NS**1 ± 0.0831.48 ± 0.2211.53 ± 0.154
Hippuric acid 12.14E-021.49E-02*NS*1 ± 0.1371.29 ± 0.1331.34 ± 0.159
Glycine3.39E-022.42E-02NSNS*1 ± 0.0311.09 ± 0.0251.09 ± 0.026
Hippuric acid 23.74E-022.71E-02NSNS*1 ± 0.1531.40 ± 0.1431.51 ± 0.191
Glycerol 3-phosphate4.20E-023.16E-02NS*NS1 ± 0.0420.96 ± 0.0371.10 ± 0.040
Xylitol6.03E-024.62E-02NSNSNS1 ± 0.0821.08 ± 0.0701.13 ± 0.064
  • Data are expressed as the mean fold to T1D ± SEM. Differences were assessed by ANOVA followed by post hoc Tukey test on log2-transformed data. P values were corrected for multiple comparisons using the false discovery rate method. When more than one derivative of the same metabolite are detected, this is indicated by a number after the name. NS, not significant.

  • *P/q < 0.05;

  • **P/q < 0.01;

  • ***P/q < 0.001;

  • ****P/q < 0.0001.