Table 2

Associations between the GRSs and T2D according to age, sex, BMI status, and Hispanic background in the HCHS/SOL

T2D case/control subjectsTotal GRSβ-Cell function GRSInsulin resistance GRS
OR (95% CI)*P*P for interactionOR (95% CI)*P*P for interactionOR (95% CI)*P*P for interaction
Overall2,499/5,2471.07 (1.06–1.08)2.31 × 10−391.10 (1.09–1.12)1.89 × 10−361.06 (1.06–1.08)1.53 × 10−7
Age, years0.120.070.51
 <45320/3,2841.06 (1.04–1.08)1.05 × 10−81.08 (1.05–1.11)1.76 × 10−71.05 (1.04–1.08)0.03
 ≥452,179/1,9361.08 (1.07–1.09)1.01 × 10−311.11 (1.09–1.14)1.40 × 10−301.06 (1.07–1.09)2.59 × 10−6
Sex0.650.440.93
 Male995/2,0761.07 (1.05–1.09)5.92 × 10−161.10 (1.07–1.12)9.58 × 10−141.06 (1.05–1.09)6.63 × 10−4
 Female1,504/3,1971.08 (1.06–1.09)7.33 × 10−261.11 (1.09–1.13)2.49 × 10−251.06 (1.06–1.09)5.48 × 10−5
BMI, kg/m22.84 × 10−38.55 × 10−50.34
 <301,050/3,6391.10 (1.08–1.11)1.08 × 10−311.15 (1.13–1.18)3.50 × 10−341.05 (1.08–1.11)1.73 × 10−3
 ≥301,449/1,6081.06 (1.04–1.08)8.90 × 10−141.08 (1.06–1.11)1.15 × 10−111.07 (1.04–1.08)2.05 × 10−5
Hispanic/Latino background0.230.220.80
 Central American244/5911.08 (1.05–1.13)2.52 × 10−71.11 (1.06–1.17)7.51 × 10−61.09 (1.01–1.17)0.02
 Cuban396/9181.06 (1.04–1.09)3.40 × 10−61.09 (1.05–1.13)5.49 × 10−61.07 (1.01–1.12)0.01
 Dominican217/5231.08 (1.04–1.12)1.66 × 10−51.08 (1.03–1.13)3.54 × 10−31.09 (1.01–1.17)0.02
 Mexican965/1,9141.08 (1.07–1.10)3.60 × 10−201.12 (1.09–1.15)1.32 × 10−191.06 (1.02–1.10)1.29 × 10−3
 Puerto Rican557/8401.05 (1.03–1.07)4.87 × 10−51.08 (1.04–1.11)4.14 × 10−51.03 (0.98–1.08)0.22
 South American113/4501.09 (1.04–1.14)1.27 × 10−41.16 (1.08–1.23)1.56 × 10−51.07 (0.97–1.18)0.16
  • *ORs (95% CI) per unit of the GRSs and P values were estimated using GMMAT, incorporating covariance matrices corresponding to genetic relatedness (kinship), household, and census block group as random effects and adjusting for center, age, sex, the first five PCs, and sampling weights.