Table 2

Summary of reports on generating β-like cells: key in vivo characteristics

Report, year (ref.)In vitro secretion per cellIn vitro stimulation indexIn vivo concentrationaIn vivo stimulation indexaDiabetes reversal/ prevention?
Rezania et al., 2014 (5)n.d.1.4–3.3b (CP)0.5–2.5 ng/mL; 167–833 pmol/L (CP; 2 weeks; 1.25 × 106 cells)c∼1.4 (2 weeks)Yes (40 daysa)
Pagliuca et al., 2014 (6)1.6 ± 0.2 μIU/103 cells (INS)2.2 ± 0.3b (INS)8.4 ± 1.8 μIU/mL (INS; 2 weeks; 5 × 106 cells)c1.7 ± 0.2b (2 weeks)Yes (18 daysa)
Russ et al., 2015 (8)n.d.1.8 ± 0.9 (CP)0.12 ± 0.08 ng/mL; 40 ± 28 pmol/L (CP; 7–10 days; 5 × 106 cells)c∼1.3 (7–10 days)No
Zhu et al., 2016 (10)n.d.2.0 ± 0.4b (INS)0.04–1.2 ng/mL; 14–400 pmol/L (CP; 2 months; 5 × 106 cells)c2.2b (2 months)Yesd
Vegas et al., 2016 (7)1.7–2.1 μIU/103 cells (INS)1.7–2.0 (INS)0.72 ± 0.06 ng/mL; 240 ± 20 pmol/L (CP; 3 weeks; 250 cell clusters)en.d.Yes (7 daysa)
Millman et al., 2016 (9): T1D iPSC2.0 ± 0.4 μIU/103 cells (INS)1.9 ± 0.5b (INS)6.1 ± 1.0 μIU/mL (INS; 2 weeks; 5 × 106 cells)c1.4 ± 0.3b (2 weeks)Yesd
Millman et al., 2016 (9): ND iPSC1.9 ± 0.3 μIU/103 cells (INS)2.2 ± 0.5b (INS)7.4 ± 0.9 μIU/mL (INS; 2 weeks; 5 × 106 cells)c1.5 ± 0.2b (2 weeks)Yesd
  • CP, C-peptide; INS, insulin; iPSC, induced pluripotent stem cells; n.d., not determined.

  • aEarliest time point shown.

  • bStatistically significant.

  • cAfter glucose injection.

  • dDiabetes induced 2–4 months after transplantation.

  • eAfter 1-h fast.