Table 1

Summary of reports on generating β-like cells: key in vitro characteristics

Report, year (ref.)Cells usedCulture formatPercent β-like cellsNKX6-1?PDX1?MAFA?GLIS3?MNX1?
Rezania et al., 2014 (5)ES, ND iPSCAttachment/ALI∼40% (INS+/NKX6-1+)Yesa,bYesa,bYesa,bn.d.n.d.
Pagliuca et al., 2014 (6)ES, ND iPSCSpinner flasks33 ± 3% (CP+/NKX6-1+)YesaYesa,bn.d.YesbYesb
Russ et al., 2015 (8)ESLow-adherence plates17 ± 6% (CP+/NKX6-1+)Yesa,bYesa,bYesbn.d.n.d.
Zhu et al., 2016 (10)FibroblastAttachment/ALI15% (CP+/GCG/SST)Yesa,bYesa,bYesbn.d.n.d.
Vegas et al., 2016 (7)ESSpinner flasks∼47% (CP+/NKX6-1+)Yesan.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.
Millman et al., 2016 (9)T1D iPSCSpinner flasks24 ± 2% (CP+/NKX6-1+)YesaYesa,bYesaYesbYesb
Millman et al., 2016 (9)ND iPSCSpinner flasks27 ± 2% (CP+/NKX6-1+)YesaYesa,bYesaYesbYesb
  • ALI, air-liquid interface; CP, C-peptide; ES, embryonic stem cells; GCG, glucagon; INS, insulin; iPSC, induced pluripotent stem cells; n.d., not determined; SST, somatostatin.

  • aDetected by immunostaining.

  • bDetected by microarray or PCR.