Table 1

Studies on refined cereal intake and risk of diabetes

Study, locationStudy participants (n)/age range (years)/casesFollow-up periodExposure and assessment methodsAdjusted RR/OR (95% CI) for diabetes
Health Professionals Follow-up Study, U.S. (40)39,765 males
32–87
2,64820 years/702,920 person-yearsFFQ of 116–131 food items (cooked white rice); self-reported diabetes1.02 (0.77–1.34) for highest quintile of white rice consumption (≥112.9 g/day) compared with <5.3 g/day
Nurses’ Health Study, U.S. (40)69,120 females
37–65
5,50022 years/1,404,373 person-yearsFFQ of 116–131 food items (cooked white rice); self-reported diabetes1.11 (0.87–1.43) for highest quintile of white rice consumption (≥112.9 g/day) compared with <5.3 g/day
Nurses’ Health Study II, U.S. (40)88,343 females
26–45
2,35914 years/1,210,903 person-yearsFFQ of 116–131 food items (cooked white rice); self-reported diabetes1.40 (1.09–1.80) for highest quintile of white rice consumption (≥112.9 g/day) compared with <5.3 g/day
Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study, Australia (41)36,787 males and females
40–69
3655 years/129,190 person-yearsFFQ of 121 food items (cooked white rice); self-reported diabetes0.93 (0.68–1.27)* for highest quartile of white rice consumption (≥56 g/day) compared with <23 g/day
Shanghai Women’s Health Study, China (42)64,191 females
40–70
1,6085 years/297,755 person-yearsFFQ of 77 food items (raw white rice); self-reported diabetes1.78 (1.48–2.15) for highest quartile of white rice consumption (≥750 g/day) compared with <500 g/day
Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study, Japan (43)33,622 females
45–75
4785 years/168,110 person-yearsFFQ of 147 items (cooked white rice); self-reported diabetes1.65 (1.06–2.57) for highest quartile (≥437 g/day) compared with <278 g/day
Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study, Japan (43)25,666 males
45–75
6255 years/128,330 person-yearsFFQ of 147 items (cooked white rice); self-reported diabetes1.19 (0.85–1.68) for highest quartile (>560 g/day) compared with <315 g/day
Pizarra study, Spain (44)605 males and females
18–65
546 years/4,253 person-yearsFFQ (cooked white rice); OGTT0.43 (0.19–0.95)* for 2–3 times per week intake of rice compared with once or less per week
Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study, India (45)1,376 males and females
≥20
38510 years/11,629 person-yearsSemiquantitative FFQ of 222 items (refined cereals included white rice, rice grits–based products, rice flour, refined wheat flour, semolina, and refined millet flour); OGTT1.85 (1.20–2.87) for highest quartile (>470 g/day) compared with <254 g/day#
  • OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test; RR, relative risk; OR, odds ratio.

  • *Odds ratio.

  • #Data acquired from study group on request.