Table 1

Baseline demographic characteristics of HCs and patients with T1D

ParameterHCs (n = 24)Patients with T1D (n = 49)
Males12 (50%)25 (51%)
Age (years)25.5 ± 4.526.3 ± 5.4
Diabetes duration (years)14.3 ± 7.2
BMI (kg/m2)23.6 ± 3.425.1 ± 3.4
Cholesterol4.2 ± 0.84.6 ± 0.8
HDL cholesterol1.5 ± 0.51.5 ± 0.4
LDL cholesterol2.4 ± 0.72.6 ± 0.7
Triglycerides1.0 ± 0.71.1 ± 0.7
Hemoglobin A1c, mmol/mol (%)31.7 ± 2.4 (5.0 ± 0.2)62.3 ± 14.8 (7.8 ± 1.3)*
24-h urine sodium (mmol/day)155 ± 65150 ± 76
24-h protein intake (g/kg/day)1.1 ± 0.31.0 ± 0.3*
Estradiol (females only)226 ± 169217 ± 250
Progesterone (females only)3.3 ± 4.23.1 ± 7.5
  • Values are reported as the mean ± SD, unless otherwise indicated. n, number of participants.

  • *P < 0.05 vs. HCs.

  • †24-h protein intake was estimated as follows: ([urine urea × 0.18] + 14)/weight (in kg).