Table 2

Effects of protein and leucine ingestion on arterial plasma glucose, insulin, NEFA, and amino acid concentrations

Protein groupLeucine group
ControlProteinControlLeucine
Glucose (mmol/L)
 Basal5.13 ± 0.055.15 ± 0.065.34 ± 0.135.27 ± 0.09
 Clamp5.65 ± 0.05*5.65 ± 0.06*5.57 ± 0.05*5.56 ± 0.04*
Insulin (pmol/L)
 Basal48 ± 844 ± 640 ± 540 ± 5
 Clamp404 ± 28*459 ± 33*380 ± 31*386 ± 23*
NEFAs (μmol/L)
 Basal667 ± 55758 ± 56742 ± 35684 ± 30
 Clamp63 ± 8*73 ± 11*68 ± 12*63 ± 15*
Leucine (µmol/L)
 Basal113 ± 4120 ± 3116 ± 5114 ± 5
 Clamp63 ± 5*222 ± 13*62 ± 4*236 ± 16*
Valine (µmol/L)
 Basal210 ± 8223 ± 5206 ± 7204 ± 8
 Clamp151 ± 9*297 ± 10*148 ± 7*104 ± 7*
Total branched-chain amino acids (µmol/L)
 Basal373 ± 13396 ± 9367 ± 11362 ± 14
 Clamp239 ± 15*647 ± 27*231 ± 11*351 ± 21
Essential amino acids (µmol/L)
 Basal836 ± 31868 ± 26799 ± 28795 ± 30
 Clamp593 ± 32*1,403 ± 56*575 ± 24*684 ± 28*
Nonessential amino acids (µmol/L)
 Basal933 ± 33940 ± 35902 ± 29938 ± 24
 Clamp737 ± 28*1,037 ± 31*762 ± 25*764 ± 45*
Total amino acids (µmol/L)
 Basal1,770 ± 621,808 ± 561,700 ± 481,733 ± 47
 Clamp1,330 ± 58*2,440 ± 82*1,337 ± 42*1,448 ± 63*
  • Values are mean ± SEM.

  • *Value is significantly different from the corresponding basal value (P < 0.01).

  • †Value is significantly different from the corresponding control values (P < 0.01).

  • ‡Value is significantly different from the corresponding value in the protein group (P < 0.01).