Table 2

Diet parameters and plasma marker response to FBX treatment in HCs and patients with T1D studied under euglycemic and hyperglycemic clamp conditions

ParameterHC (n = 24)T1D (n = 49)
EuglycemiaHyperglycemia
BaselineFBXP valueBaselineFBXP valueBaselineFBXP value
Diet parameters
 Hemoglobin A1c, mmol/mol (%)5.05 ± 0.224.97 ± 0.230.016762.3 ± 14.8 (7.8 ± 1.3)*62.4 ± 13.9 (7.9 ± 1.3)0.8831
 24-h urine sodium (mmol/day)155 ± 65152 ± 740.7968150 ± 76132 ± 830.1126
 24-h protein intake (g/kg/day)1.1 ± 0.31.1 ± 0.30.27261.0 ± 0.3*1.0 ± 0.40.8264
Plasma analysis
 Aldosterone (ng/dL)291 ± 164283 ± 2600.885276 ± 5667 ± 390.126560 ± 5460 ± 470.9976
 Renin (ng/L)14.4 ± 10.412.1 ± 8.50.334310.3 ± 22.910.1 ± 16.50.93766.8 ± 15.65.1 ± 5.80.4028
 PUA (µmol/L)303 ± 71131 ± 55<0.0001240 ± 62124 ± 53<0.0001221 ± 61108 ± 42<0.0001
 Estradiol (females only)226 ± 169285 ± 2200.1997217 ± 249245 ± 2600.6742
 Progesterone (females only)3.3 ± 4.24.3 ± 5.90.52483.1 ± 7.52.1 ± 3.80.5487
  • Values are reported as the mean ± SD, unless otherwise indicated. n, number of participants.

  • *P < 0.05 vs. HC.

  • †24-h protein intake: estimated by the formula ([urine urea × 0.18] + 14)/weight (in kg).