Table 1

Anthropometric and metabolic measures of the study groups

AllMalesFemales
Population-based longitudinal outpatient study
N5,8702,5723,298
 Birth year1,966 ± 161,967 ± 161,966 ± 16
 Maximum BMI (kg/m2)35.2 ± 8.433.9 ± 8.136.1 ± 8.5
 Age (years)29.6 ± 11.428.9 ± 11.330.1 ± 11.4
Body composition inpatient study
N917506411
 Age (years)28.0 ± 8.028.1 ± 8.328.0 ± 7.6
 PFAT (%)33.4 ± 8.528.4 ± 7.039.7 ± 5.7
 FM (kg)33.0 ± 14.629.3 ± 14.037.6 ± 13.9
 FFM (kg)62.5 ± 14.268.8 ± 13.454.7 ± 10.9
 Height (cm)166.6 ± 8.4172.1 ± 6.2159.9 ± 5.2
Respiratory chamber inpatient study
N419254165
 Age (years)27.8 ± 6.427.8 ± 6.627.8 ± 6.2
 Body weight (kg)95.3 ± 22.398.6 ± 22.790.2 ± 20.7
 BMI (kg/m2)34.2 ± 7.533.4 ± 7.335.3 ± 7.7
 PFAT (%)32.6 ± 8.228.7 ± 6.938.8 ± 6.0
 FM (kg)32.0 ± 13.029.5 ± 12.935.8 ± 12.2
 FFM (kg)63.3 ± 12.669.0 ± 10.954.4 ± 9.5
 Fasting plasma glucose concentration (mg/dL)88.8 ± 10.087.3 ± 9.991.2 ± 9.7
 2-h plasma glucose concentration (mg/dL)123.0 ± 30.5115.8 ± 30.0134.0 ± 28.0
 24-h EE (kcal/day)2,354 ± 3962,531 ± 3472,083 ± 303
 Adjusted 24-h EE (kcal/day)#0 ± 142.90 ± 147.00 ± 136.9
 SPA (%)7.5 ± 2.57.7 ± 2.57.1 ± 2.5
 Sleeping EE (kcal/day)1,672 ± 2841,776 ± 2711,513 ± 223
 Adjusted sleeping EE (kcal/day)#0 ± 135.30 ± 144.40 ± 120.3
 AFT (kcal/14 h)263 ± 122288 ± 129223 ± 99
 Adjusted AFT (kcal/14 h)#0 ± 114.80 ± 124.20 ± 98.6
Ventilated hood inpatient study
N509301208
 Age (years)26.9 ± 6.126.8 ± 6.426.9 ± 5.8
 Body weight (kg)93.4 ± 23.097.3 ± 24.287.8 ± 19.9
 BMI (kg/m2)33.5 ± 7.632.9 ± 7.634.5 ± 7.4
 PFAT (%)32.3 ± 8.528.2 ± 7.438.2 ± 6.4
 FM (kg)31.2 ± 13.528.9 ± 13.934.5 ± 12.2
 FFM (kg)62.2 ± 12.968.4 ± 11.653.3 ± 8.8
 Fasting plasma glucose concentration (mg/dL)89.3 ± 10.087.4 ± 9.592.1 ± 10.0
 2-h plasma glucose concentration (mg/dL)122.8 ± 30.3115.7 ± 28.1132.9 ± 30.5
 RMR (kcal/day)1,758 ± 3261,878 ± 3221,587 ± 247
 Adjusted RMR (kcal/day)#0 ± 189.60 ± 212.40 ± 151.4
  • Data are mean ± SD unless otherwise noted.

  • #All four EE measures (24-h EE, sleeping EE, AFT, and RMR) are adjusted for age, sex, FM, and FFM by linear regression analysis; 24-h EE and AFT are further adjusted for SPA and for fasting glucose levels, respectively.