Table 1

Characteristics of study participants according to the AMY1-AMY2 rs11185098 genotype

GG (n = 380)GA (n = 257)AA (n = 55)P value
Age (years)51.9 (9.0)51.1 (8.8)50.0 (10.2)0.11
Male sex, n (%)145 (38.2)106 (41.2)18 (32.7)0.46
White race, n (%)338 (88.9)200 (77.8)45 (81.8)<0.001
Low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet (yes), n (%)190 (50.0)131 (51.0)27 (49.1)0.95
Low-protein diet (yes), n (%)194 (51.1)130 (50.6)26 (47.3)0.87
BMI (kg/m2)32.5 (3.8)32.8 (3.9)33.7 (4.1)0.04
BW (kg)92.8 (15.1)93.7 (15.6)97.4 (17.8)0.07
WC (cm)103.1 (12.8)104.4 (13.1)106.9 (14.1)0.03
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)120 (13)120 (14)118 (13)0.64
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)76 (9)76 (10)75 (9)0.71
Antihypertensive medication use (yes)105 (27.6)81 (31.5)18 (32.7)0.49
Fasting glucose (mmol/L)5.2 (0.7)5.1 (0.6)5.0 (0.5)0.03
Fasting insulin (pmol/L)82 (47)86 (62)96 (53)0.16
HbA1c (%)5.4 (0.4)5.4 (0.4)5.4 (0.4)0.79
HbA1c (mmol/mol)35 (4)35 (4)35 (4)
HOMA-IR2.8 (1.8)2.8 (2.2)3.2 (1.9)0.4
Triglycerides (mmol/L)1.36 (1.02, 2.10)1.39 (0.92, 1.89)1.47 (1.02, 1.99)0.41
Lipid-lowering medication (yes)65 (17.1)54 (21.0)11 (20.0)0.45
Body composition
 Whole-body fat mass (%)37.1 (6.9)36.7 (7.0)37.1 (6.4)0.72
 Trunk fat (%)38.0 (6.2)37.9 (6.1)38.4 (6.0)0.83
 Whole-body total fat mass (kg)35.0 (8.1)35.3 (7.9)36.0 (8.1)0.53
 Whole-body lean mass (kg)59.7 (12.7)61.4 (13.1)62.0 (15.4)0.19
Dietary intake per day*
 Total energy intake (kcal)1,938 (529)2,006 (580)1,784 (525)0.67
 Carbohydrate intake (% of total energy intake)44.6 (7.7)44 (7.7)47.4 (6.8)0.32
 Fat intake (% of total energy intake)36.7 (6.0)37.7 (6.1)35.5 (5.1)0.94
 Protein intake (% of total energy intake)18.3 (3.3)18.1 (3.4)18.1 (4.1)0.75
Biomarkers of adherence
 Respiratory quotient0.84 (0.04)0.84 (0.04)0.84 (0.04)0.14
 Urinary nitrogen (mg/day)12.2 (4.3)12.1 (4.6)12.1 (4.6)0.75
  • Data are mean (SD) or median (25th, 75th), unless otherwise stated. Data on triglycerides, insulin, and HOMA-IR were log-transformed before analysis.

  • †Data were available for 211, 135, and 24 individuals across the GG, GA, and AA genotypes, respectively.

  • *Data were available for 202, 131, and 31 individuals across the GG, GA, and AA genotypes, respectively.