Table 1

Characteristics of children who progressed from multiple autoantibodies to T1D and those who did not

Did not progress to T1DProgressed to T1D
Total, n (%)222 (54)190 (46)
Country of residence, n (%)
 U.S.82 (59)57 (41)
 Finland53 (48)57 (52)
 Germany16 (44)20 (56)
 Sweden71 (56)56 (44)
Family history of T1D, n (%)
 GP171 (55)140 (45)
 FDR: mother12 (50)12 (50)
 FDR: father27 (50)27 (50)
 FDR: sibling12 (52)11 (48)
Sex, n (%)
 Female88 (49)92 (51)
 Male134 (58)98 (42)
HLA-DR-DQ genotypes, n (%)
 DR3/4121 (52)110 (48)
 DR4/446 (61)30 (39)
 DR4/831 (56)24 (44)
 DR3/316 (53)14 (47)
 FDR specific8 (40)12 (60)
Age at multiple persistent confirmed IA (months), median (IQR)48 (31–74)21 (15–31)
Type of first autoantibody, n (%)
 GADA only85 (66)43 (34)
 IAA only84 (53)76 (47)
 Two or more autoantibodies49 (42)68 (58)
 IA-2A only4 (57)3 (43)
  • FDR-specific HLA-DR-DQ genotypes are DR4/4b, DR4/1, DR4/13, DR4/9, and DR3/9.