Table 2

Cox regression analysis of risk factors for progression from multiple autoantibodies to T1D

HR (95% CI)P
Age at multiple autoantibodies onset (months)0.96 (0.95, 0.97)<0.001
HLA-DR-DQ genotype0.74
 DR3/41.24 (0.79, 1.93)0.35
 DR4/41 [Reference]
 DR4/81.22 (0.68, 2.18)0.50
 DR3/31.44 (0.70, 2.96)0.32
 FDR specific1.58 (0.73, 3.41)0.25
Family history of T1D0.69
 FDR: mother1.34 (0.66, 2.75)0.42
 FDR: father1.30 (0.80, 2.09)0.29
 FDR: sibling0.98 (0.48, 2.01)0.96
 GP1 [Reference]
Type of first autoantibody0.02
 GADA only1.16 (0.76, 1.78)0.49
 IAA only1 [Reference]
 Two or more autoantibodies1.66 (1.15, 2.39)0.006
Sex
 Female1.43 (1.04, 1.96)0.03
 Male1 [Reference]
Country of residence0.84
 U.S.1 [Reference]
 Finland1.05 (0.53, 2.10)0.89
 Germany1.13 (0.59, 2.14)0.71
 Sweden0.88 (0.58, 1.34)0.55
SNP rs1004446_A (INS)0.71 (0.55, 0.91)0.006
SNP rs10517086_A1.31 (1.03, 1.67)0.03
SNP rs1534422_G1.39 (1.10, 1.76)0.006
SNP rs2327832_G (TNFAIP3)1.34 (1.03, 1.74)0.03
PC11.11 (0.91, 1.35)0.32
PC20.96 (0.72, 1.28)0.78
  • The top two principal components (PC1 and PC2) from the principal components analysis on Immunochip data were included as covariates to correct for population stratification. FDR-specific HLA-DR-DQ genotypes are DR4/4b, DR4/1, DR4/13, DR4/9, and DR3/9.