Table 1

GWAS characteristics by DKD phenotypes in subjects with T2D and T1D

AnalysisCase definitionControl definitionSubjects with T2DSubjects with T1D
Case, nControl, nCase, nControl, n
All DKDMicroalbuminuria OR Late DKD OR ESRDNormoalbuminuria (AER <20 µg/min OR AER <30 mg/24 h OR ACR <2.5/3.5 mg/mmol for men/women) AND duration of T2D >10 years3,3452,3722,5632,593
Microalbuminuria*At least 2 out of 3 consecutive measurements with AER ≥20 AND <200 µg/min OR AER ≥30 AND <300 mg/24 h OR ACR ≥2.5/3.5 AND <25/35 mg/mmol for men/womenNormoalbuminuria AND duration of T2D >10 years1,9892,2388062,593
Late DKDAt least one measurement with AER ≥200 µg/min OR AER ≥300 mg/24 h OR ACR ≥25/35 mg/mmol for men/women OR ESRD (eGFR <15 mL/min/1.73 m2 OR kidney transplantation OR dialysis)Normoalbuminuria AND duration of T2D >10 years1,3392,3721,7572,593
ESRD vs. control subjectsESRD: eGFR <15 mL/min/1.73 m2 OR renal dialysis OR kidney transplantNo DKD AND duration of T2D >10 years3712,0768132,398
ESRD vs. no ESRDESRD (see above)No ESRD AND duration of T2D >10 years3714,4718133,995
CKDeGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2No CKD AND duration of T2D >10 years3,0942,9062,460774
CKD and DKDeGFR <45 mL/min/1.73 m2 AND all DKDNo CKD AND no ESRD AND normoalbuminuria AND duration of T2D >10 years8971,6101,7501,385
eGFR32,788 × serum creatinine (μmol/L)−1.154 × age−0.203 × [0.742 if female] (mL/min/1.73 m2)9,1973,961
  • *Equivalent to the early DKD phenotype from Sandholm et al. (17).

  • †Not all studies were able to define microalbuminuria (due to limited information on microalbuminuric status) and thus the case and control group number is smaller than all DKD and late DKD.

  • ‡The duration of diabetes for subjects with T1D was >15 years.