Table 1

Fully adjusted associations between biomarker levels and incident DSPN

BiomarkerFull nameOR (95% CI)PPB-H
MCP-3MCP 3 (CCL7)1.84 (1.24; 2.73)0.0030.043
CDCP1CUB domain-containing protein 11.50 (1.06; 2.12)0.0220.105
CD244Natural killer cell receptor 2B42.01 (1.07; 3.80)0.0310.105
OPGOsteoprotegerin2.69 (1.26; 5.73)0.0100.078
uPAUrokinase-type plasminogen activator2.45 (1.21; 4.95)0.0130.084
CXCL9C-X-C motif chemokine 91.69 (1.26; 2.28)<0.001<0.001
CD6T cell surface glycoprotein CD6 isoform1.86 (1.17; 2.97)0.0090.078
SLAMF1Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)1.79 (1.09; 2.94)0.0220.105
LIF-RLeukemia inhibitory factor receptor2.26 (1.04; 4.91)0.0390.107
CCL19C-C motif chemokine 191.32 (1.03; 1.69)0.0290.105
IL-15RAIL-15 receptor subunit α3.06 (1.29; 7.23)0.0110.078
IL-10RBIL-10 receptor subunit β2.53 (1.14; 5.61)0.0230.105
HGFHepatocyte growth factor1.99 (1.06; 3.75)0.0330.105
IL-12BIL-12 subunit β1.51 (1.03; 2.21)0.0350.105
CD5T-cell surface glycoprotein CD51.95 (1.07; 3.56)0.0280.105
MIP-1αMacrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (C-C motif chemokine 3 [CCL3])1.57 (1.03; 2.04)0.0370.105
CXCL10C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (IP-10)1.47 (1.17; 1.86)0.0010.018
EIF4EBP1Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 11.62 (1.03; 2.54)0.0360.105
DNERDelta and Notch-like epidermal growth factor-related receptor3.88 (1.56; 9.66)0.0040.047
EN-RAGEProtein S100-A12 (EN-RAGE)1.43 (1.06; 1.92)0.0180.105
CD40CD40L receptor3.39 (1.64; 7.04)0.0010.018
FGF-19Fibroblast growth factor 191.36 (1.03; 1.78)0.0290.105
TNFRSF9TNF receptor superfamily member 92.46 (1.47; 4.13)0.0010.018
CCL20C-C motif chemokine 201.34 (1.09; 1.65)0.0060.061
TNF-βTNF-β (lymphotoxin-α/LT-α)1.72 (1.03; 2.88)0.0370.105
CSF-1Macrophage colony-stimulating factor 13.19 (1.13; 8.99)0.0280.105
  • All biomarkers with significant associations in the prospective analysis are shown. The full list of biomarkers and results is given in Supplementary Table 5. OR (95% CI), corresponding P values and Benjamini-Hochberg corrected P values (PB-H) for incident DSPN are given for a 1-unit increase in NPX levels. Results are from the fully adjusted model 2: adjusted for baseline age (years), sex, waist circumference (cm), height (cm), hypertension (yes/no), total cholesterol (mg/dL), HbA1c (%), alcohol intake (none/moderate/high), smoking (never/former/current), physical activity (active/inactive), use of lipid-lowering drugs (yes/no), use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (yes/no), estimated glomerular filtration rate (mL/min per 1.73 m2), prevalent myocardial infarction and/or stroke (yes/no), and neurological conditions that might cause nerve damage (yes/no).