Table 1

Clinical characteristics of study subjects in the two stages

Subjects in discovery stageSubjects in replication stage
N2,9362,449
Age (years)63.41 ± 12.9863.77 ± 12.50
Duration of diabetes (years)11.69 ± 8.7411.89 ± 8.78
Sex (male %)59.356.4
BMI (kg/m2)25.97 ± 4.2626.09 ± 4.48
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L)7.74 ± 2.557.71 ± 2.44
HbA1c (%)*7.40 (6.70–8.30)7.20 (6.60–8.10)
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)*77 (58–94)80 (59–94)
Hypertension (%)88.087.7
Dyslipidemia (%)63.769.7
Ever smoke (%)34.732.3
Antihyperglycemia treatment
 OAD (%)94.593.4
 Metformin (%)74.974.3
 Insulin (%)30.728.8
 Diet only (%)2.03.1
DN (%)55.254.2
STDR (%)15.115.2
CAD (%)37.114.5
PEDF (µg/mL)*9.41 (8.07–11.22)9.45 (7.95–11.25)
  • Data are mean ± SD, median (interquartile range), or %, unless otherwise stated. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg or on antihypertension medications. Dyslipidemia was defined as fasting triglycerides ≥1.69 mmol/L, HDL cholesterol <1.04 mmol/L in men and < 1.29 mmol/L in women, LDL cholesterol ≥3.4 mmol/L, or on lipid-lowering agents. eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; OAD, orally administered antidiabetes drugs.

  • *Natural-log transformed before analysis.