Table 3

Association analyses of circulating PEDF with DN in the HKWDR cohort

With DNWithout DNOR (95% CI)P value
N2,9142,408
PEDF (µg/mL)*10.48 (8.94–12.43)8.46 (7.31–9.67)6.66 (4.70–9.42)<0.001
Age (years)65.83 ± 12.4963.05 ± 12.811.00 (0.99–1.01)0.758
Sex (male)57.658.40.84 (0.73–1.01)0.999
Duration of diabetes (years)*12.0 (6.0–19.0)8.0 (4.0–15.0)1.18 (1.08–1.28)<0.001
Hypertension (%)78.495.82.48 (1.95–3.16)<0.001
HbA1c (%)*7.5 (6.7–8.4)7.2 (6.6–8.0)4.59 (2.96–7.12)<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)26.49 ± 4.4925.48 ± 4.161.05 (1.03–1.07)<0.001
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)*61.0 (44.0–84.0)88.0 (77.0–98.0)0.02 (0.01–0.03)<0.001
  • Data are mean ± SD, median (interquartile range), or %, unless stated otherwise. eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate.

  • *Natural-log transformed before analysis.

  • †Adjusted for traditional risk factors.