Table 1

Studies included in the discovery sample

StudyPopulationDiabetes typeNumber of eyes/number of fields/size of fields photographedDiabetes durationGlycemic control measureCase subjects (ETDRS ≥14)Control subjects (ETDRS <14)Case subjects (ETDRS ≥60)Control subjects (ETDRS <60)Case subjects (ETDRS ≥30)
AAPDRAA22/7/30°YHbA1c2745625575261
AGES*EUR22/2/45°YHbA1c8522233048
ARICAA21/1/45°YHbA1c96265335873
ARICEUR21/1/45°YHbA1c126632675280
AUSTEUR2NAYHbA1c522435187770346
BMESEUR22/5/30°YFPG124208133137
CHSAA21/1/45°YFPG193545014
CHSEUR21/1/45°YFPG26119414116
FIND-Eye*AA22/2/45°YHbA1c330167264233303
FIND-EyeEUR22/2/45°YHbA1c158154115197145
JHSAA22/7/30°YHbA1c911601223957
MESAAA22/2/45°YHbA1c1012581134860
MESAEUR22/2/45°YHbA1c38200223612
RISE/RIDEEUR22/7/30°YHbA1c80117
WFUAA2NAYHbA1c548211
TotalAA2YVaries9119411,0971,514768
TotalEUR2YVaries1,0791,9703982,848644
  • AA, African American; AAPDR, African American Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Study; AGES, Age, Gene/Environment, Susceptibility - Reykjavik Study; ARIC, Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study; AUST, Australian Genetics of Diabetic Retinopathy Study; BMES, Blue Mountains Eye Study; CHS, Cardiovascular Health Study; EUR, European; FIND-Eye, Family Study of Nephropathy and Diabetes-Eye; JHS, Jackson Heart Study; MESA, Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis; NA, not available; RIDE/RISE, Ranibizumab Injection in Subjects with Clinically Significant Macular Edema with Center Involvement Secondary to Diabetes; WFU, Wake Forest School of Medicine Study; Y, information on diabetes duration is available.

  • *Cohorts without access to raw genotype information.

  • †Not all FIND-Eye subjects had photographs, but all participants had harmonization of exam and clinical data to an ETDRS score.

  • ‡AUST used examination by an ophthalmologist to ascertain DR. The WFU study used a questionnaire to ascertain DR.