Table 1

Metabolic parameters in F1 offspring

NCDHFD
Ctrl-F1INS-F1GDM-F1Ctrl-F1INS-F1GDM-F1
Male (n)810981111
 TC (mmol/L)2.58 ± 0.092.86 ± 0.103.56 ± 0.15**##2.74 ± 0.053.55 ± 0.13*3.82 ± 0.37**
 TG (mmol/L)1.14 ± 0.131.04 ± 0.131.61 ± 0.11*##1.35 ± 0.101.78 ± 0.132.34 ± 0.21**#
 NEFA (mmol/L)1.08 ± 0.111.13 ± 0.081.38 ± 0.07*#1.18 ± 0.051.42 ± 0.09*1.6 ± 0.08**
 HDL (mmol/L)1.74 ± 0.101.80 ± 0.111.98 ± 0.081.61 ± 0.181.52 ± 0.091.78 ± 0.14
 LDL (mmol/L)0.99 ± 0.081.02 ± 0.061.28 ± 0.08*#0.90 ± 0.171.51 ± 0.10*1.57 ± 0.24*
 Leptin (ng/mL)3.55 ± 0.313.25 ± 0.282.95 ± 0.192.77 ± 0.193.27 ± 0.212.89 ± 0.19
 Glucose (mg/dL)64.00 ± 1.0860.12 ± 1.2267.68 ± 3.20#71 ± 5.8277.38 ± 3.3083.69 ± 3.77*
 Insulin (ng/mL)0.20 ± 0.030.21 ± 0.030.30 ± 0.02**##0.29 ± 0.020.71 ± 0.06**0.85 ± 0.12**
 HOMA-IR0.67 ± 0.110.67 ± 0.051.07 ± 0.11**##1.04 ± 0.052.87 ± 0.25**3.74 ± 0.55**
Female (n)881081010
 TC (mmol/L)1.78 ± 0.072.1 ± 0.202.98 ± 0.22**##2.48 ± 0.202.57 ± 0.053.19 ± 0.22*##
 TG (mmol/L)1.23 ± 0.071.35 ± 0.171.55 ± 0.121.25 ± 0.031.70 ± 0.131.86 ± 0.14*
 NEFA (mmol/L)1.33 ± 0.091.37 ± 0.081.76 ± 0.12**##1.40 ± 0.061.52 ± 0.112.03 ± 0.15**##
 HDL (mmol/L)0.94 ± 0.041.06 ± 0.161.45 ± 0.11**#1.36 ± 0.201.49 ± 0.331.49 ± 0.10
 LDL (mmol/L)0.48 ± 0.040.59 ± 0.100.93 ± 0.15**#0.94 ± 0.121.29 ± 0.091.33 ± 0.12
 Leptin (ng/mL)2.97 ± 0.192.79 ± 0.252.65 ± 0.302.91 ± 0.303.10 ± 0.133.10 ± 0.26
 Glucose (mg/dL)57.43 ± 1.0053.95 ± 1.0055.70 ± 2.5559.60 ± 2.5758.56 ± 3.0559.16 ± 1.34
 Insulin (ng/mL)0.26 ± 0.030.29 ± 0.040.33 ± 0.030.29 ± 0.020.34 ± 0.030.38 ± 0.02*
 HOMA-IR0.79 ± 0.080.84 ± 0.130.97 ± 0.110.91 ± 0.081.02 ± 0.101.19 ± 0.08*
  • Data are expressed as mean ± SEM. NEFA, nonesterified fatty acids; TC, total cholesterol; TG, triacylglycerol. All parameters were measured at 20 weeks of age.

  • *P < 0.05 vs. Ctrl-F1; **P < 0.01 vs. Ctrl-F1. #P < 0.05 vs. INS-F1; ##P < 0.01 vs. INS-F1. Significance was determined by ANOVA.