Table 1

Demographic and baseline characteristics of subjects

ParameterTreatment group
(N = 22)Control group
(N = 17)Total
(N = 39)P value
Sex, N (%)Male14 (63.6)13 (76.5)27 (69.3)0.389*
Female8 (36.4)4 (23.5)12 (30.8)
Age, yearsMean ± SD59.9 ± 13.368.4 ± 9.963.6 ± 12.5
Median60.570.066.00.034*
Min, Max26.0, 80.043.0, 79.026.0, 80.0
Smoking history, N (%)Nonsmoker11 (50.0)9 (52.9)20 (51.3)1.000
Ex-smoker6 (27.3)5 (29.4)11 (28.2)
Smoker5 (22.7)3 (17.6)8 (20.5)
Height, cmMean ± SD167.9 ± 11.4167.3 ± 7.3167.7 ± 9.7
Median166.0167.5167.00.839*
Min, Max143.0, 190.9152.0, 179.9143.0, 190.9
Body weight, kgMean ± SD72.9 ± 15.773.3 ± 14.273.1 ± 14.9
Median68.575.070.40.938*
Min, Max58.0, 124.351.6, 101.051.6, 124.3
BMI, kg/m2Mean ± SD25.8 ± 4.126.2 ± 5.025.9 ± 4.5
Median25.425.725.50.787*
Min, Max20.6, 36.319.4, 40.519.4, 40.5
Glycated hemoglobin A1c at screening visit, %Mean ± SD7.9 ± 1.68.1 ± 1.78.0 ± 1.6
Median7.98.08.00.739*
Min, Max5.3, 10.55.5, 10.95.3, 10.9
Postprandial blood glucose at screening visit, mg/dLMean ± SD193.0 ± 96.5208.5 ± 94.8199.7 ± 94.8
Median144.0165.0163.00.618*
Min, Max65.0, 369.091.0, 445.065.0, 445.0
Serum albumin at screening visit, g/dLMean ± SD4.1 ± 0.44.1 ± 0.34.1 ± 0.4
Median4.14.14.10.988*
Min, Max3.3, 5.33.7, 4.93.3, 5.3
Diabetes duration, monthsMean ± SD205.7 ± 128.0239.7 ± 117.3220.5 ± 123.0
Median186.0234.0191.00.399*
Min, Max1.0, 496.072.0, 433.01.0, 496.0
Diabetes type, N (%)Type 11 (4.5)0 (0)1 (2.6)1.000
Type 221 (95.5)17 (100)38 (97.4)
Eye disorders, N (%)Yes13 (59.1)9 (52.9)22 (56.4)0.701§
No9 (40.9)8 (47.1)17 (43.6)
Renal disorder, N (%)Yes7 (31.8)10 (58.8)17 (43.6)0.092§
No15 (68.2)7 (41.2)12 (56.4)
Cardiovascular disorder, N (%)Yes18 (81.8)16 (94.1)34 (87.2)0.363
No4 (18.2)1 (5.9)5 (12.8)
Neuropathy history, N (%)Yes13 (59.1)11 (64.7)24 (61.5)0.721
No9 (40.9)6 (35.3)15 (38.5)
Duration of diabetic foot ulcers, monthsMean ± SD6.7 ± 11.010.2 ± 23.38.2 ± 17.3
Median3.03.03.00.875
Min, Max1.0, 52.01.0, 99.01.0, 99.0
Wagner grade, N (%)Grade 114 (63.6)11 (64.7)25 (64.1)0.945§
Grade 28 (36.4)6 (35.3)14 (35.9)
Ulcer location, N (%)Right13 (59.1)8 (47.1)21 (53.8)0.455§
Left9 (40.9)9 (52.9)18 (46.2)
Dorsal11 (50.0)12 (70.6)23 (59.0)0.195§
Plantar11 (50.0)5 (29.4)16 (41.0)
Forefoot20 (90.9)11 (64.7)31 (79.5)0.068
Midfoot1 (4.5)1 (5.9)2 (5.1)
Hindfoot1 (4.5)5 (29.4)6 (15.4)
Wound size, cm2Mean ± SD2.0 ± 0.92.8 ± 2.02.3 ± 1.5
Median1.71.81.80.335
Min, Max1.0, 4.51.1, 7.61.0, 7.6
Cause of ulcer, N (%)Trauma1 (4.5)0 (0.0)1 (2.6)0.523
Pressure by shoes16 (72.7)12 (70.6)28 (71.8)
Unknown3 (13.6)1 (5.9)4 (10.3)
Others2 (9.1)4 (23.5)6 (15.4)
Amputation history, N (%)Toe10 (45.5)3 (17.6)13 (33.3)0.068§
Total11 (50.0)4 (23.5)15 (38.5)0.092§
Surgical history of target site, N (%)Yes14 (63.6)8 (47.1)22 (56.4)0.301
No8 (36.4)9 (52.9)17 (43.6)
  • Max, maximum; Min, minimum.

  • *Independent t test.

  • †Wilcoxon rank sum test.

  • ‡Fisher exact test.

  • §Pearson χ2 test.