Table 2

Overview of plasma and serum measurements

InfusionGIP(3-30)NH2 + exendin(9-39)NH2*GIP(3-30)NH2Exendin(9-39)NH2Placebo§P value (rmANOVA)
Glucose
 Baseline (mmol/L)5.3 ± 0.40§5.2 ± 0.395.4 ± 0.47§5.2 ± 0.37*‡0.0018
 Peak (mmol/L)11.8 ± 1.92†‡§10.3 ± 2.07*§10.6 ± 2.20*§9.3 ± 2.03*†‡<0.0001
 Time to peak (min)58 ± 18‡§56 ± 18‡§44 ± 17*†43 ± 16*†0.0009
 bsAUC0–180 min (mmol/L × min)488 ± 244†‡§391 ± 242*‡§303 ± 190*†252 ± 169*†<0.0001
Insulin
 Baseline (pmol/L)90.8 ± 52.392.2 ± 48.0105 ± 56.892.2 ± 43.300.1808
 Peak (pmol/L)769 ± 432‡645 ± 331‡§1,091 ± 703*†835 ± 314†0.0031
 Time to peak (min)69 ± 25†‡58 ± 22*48 ± 20*57 ± 220.0067
 bsAUC0–180 min (mmol/L × min)55.0 ± 34.046.9 ± 27.0‡§67.1 ± 39.8†61.2 ± 32.1†0.0145
Insulin/glucose ratio
 Baseline (pmol/mmol)16.9 ± 9.217.6 ± 8.919.5 ± 10.717.8 ± 8.30.1988
 Peak (pmol/mmol)73.5 ± 42.8‡§71.8 ± 43.6‡§113.5 ± 73.8*†98.9 ± 41.4*†0.0002
 Time to peak (min)84.2 ± 30.5†‡§59.2 ± 28.4*54.2 ± 28.2*56.7 ± 23.9*0.0009
 bsAUC0–180 min (pmol/mmol × L−1 × min)4,967 ± 3,474‡§4,948 ± 3,596‡§7,247 ± 5,044*†7,422 ± 4,124*†<0.0001
C-peptide
 Baseline (pmol/L)588 ± 204602 ± 200642 ± 203604 ± 2060.1423
 Peak (pmol/L)2,559 ± 766‡2,398 ± 718*‡§3,050 ± 933*†2,794 ± 714†0.0027
 Time to peak (min)79.2 ± 26.184.2 ± 24.870.0 ± 24.771.7 ± 30.20.1817
 bsAUC0–180 min (nmol/L × min)193 ± 73.0193 ± 70.4‡§225 ± 75.8†230 ± 87.3†0.0025
C-peptide/glucose ratio
 Baseline (nmol/mmol)110 ± 35.4115 ± 36.4119 ± 35.9116 ± 38.70.1749
 Peak (nmol/mmol)303 ± 80.8‡§310 ± 83.0‡§366 ± 100*†376 ± 88.4*†<0.0001
 Time to peak (min)123 ± 38.4‡§127 ± 48.9‡,§86.7 ± 28.4*†90 ± 35.3*†<0.0001
 bsAUC0–180 min (nmol/mmol × L−1 × min)17.4 ± 7.80‡§20.4 ± 10.9‡§25.4 ± 10.5*†§28.4 ± 11.3*†‡<0.0001
ISR
 Baseline (pmol/kg × min−1)1.60 ± 0.471.71 ± 0.561.75 ± 0.481.64 ± 0.480.2780
 Peak (pmol/kg × min−1)9.71 ± 3.08‡9.01 ± 2.58‡§12.3 ± 5.26†10.9 ± 2.850.0048
 Time to peak (min)70.8 ± 27.669.2 ± 28.757.5 ± 23.756.7 ± 24.40.0580
 bsAUC0–180 min (pmol/kg)555 ± 196540 ± 195‡§630 ± 227†654 ± 248†0.0086
ISR/glucose ratio
 Baseline (pmol/kg × min−1 × mmol−1 × L)0.28 ± 0.080.33 ± 0.100.31 ± 0.080.32 ± 0.090.0391
 Peak (pmol/kg × min−1 ×   mmol−1 × L)1.01 ± 0.35‡§1.04 ± 0.30‡§1.34 ± 0.49*†1.35 ± 0.37*†<0.0001
 Time to peak (min)98.3 ± 38.2‡§96.7 ± 45.270.0 ± 30.9*77.5 ± 42.8*0.0027
 bsAUC0–180 min (pmol/kg ×   mmol−1 × L)59.5 ± 25.0‡§65.2 ± 35.2‡§80.8 ± 32.5*†93.2 ± 39.6*†<0.0001
β-Cells
 Insulinogenic index96.6 ± 67.9‡§128 ± 95.4‡§205 ± 151*†207 ± 134*†<0.0001
 β-Cell glucose sensitivity1.32 ± 1.01‡§1.58 ± 0.87‡§2.16 ± 1.35*†2.44 ± 1.37*†<0.0001
 β-Cell function0.55 ± 0.13†‡§0.61 ± 0.17*‡§0.67 ± 0.18*†0.72 ± 0.20*†<0.0001
GIP
 Baseline (pmol/L)9.19 ± 4.78†6.19 ± 4.73*‡§12.9 ± 7.89†11.11 ± 5.12†0.0026
 Peak (pmol/L)66.4 ± 19.361.6 ± 15.972.3 ± 18.7§56.3 ± 15.6‡0.0025
 Time to peak (min)37.5 ± 16.545.8 ± 22.735.0 ± 23.643.3 ± 30.40.3948
 bsAUC0–180 min (pmol/L × min)4,806 ± 1,8615,899 ± 1,364‡§4,458 ± 2,137†4,749 ± 1,668†0.0400
GLP-1
 Baseline (pmol/L)12.2 ± 5.8810.3 ± 4.9413.4 ± 4.6211.4 ± 4.250.1665
 Peak (pmol/L)87.9 ± 69.8‡§32.6 ± 9.88*‡101 ± 70.9†§28.8 ± 6.52*‡0.0001
 Time to peak (min)52.5 ± 22.0‡52.5 ± 28.332.5 ± 11.8*§65.8 ± 38.6‡0.0084
 bsAUC0–180 min (pmol/L × min)3,595 ± 1,695†§2,093 ± 1,079‡4,027 ± 2,660‡§1,577 ± 838*‡0.0005
Glucagon
 Baseline (pmol/L)16.4 ± 8.2014.1 ± 5.63‡17.7 ± 8.51†13.9 ± 6.480.0077
 Nadir (pmol/L)5.81 ± 4.47§3.81 ± 2.92‡6.08 ± 4.01†§3.48 ± 2.53*‡0.0003
 Time to nadir (min)106 ± 37.3107 ± 25.7106 ± 40.0102 ± 40.00.9339
 AUC0–240 min (pmol/L × min)3,078 ± 1,623†§2,244 ± 988*3,179 ± 1,300†§2,310 ± 1,076*‡0.0001
PP
 Baseline (pmol/L)19.1 ± 7.3316.9 ± 9.1623.3 ± 13.721.2 ± 11.70.2259
 Peak of 0–120 min (pmol/L)31.2 ± 12.329.9 ± 11.350.2 ± 38.535.6 ± 22.60.0158
 Time to peak (min)32 ± 2437 ± 2928 ± 1235 ± 260.6881
 bsAUC0–180 min (pmol/L × min)316 ± 1,379375 ± 1,535786 ± 1,626802 ± 1,7390.5731
Acetaminophen
 Peak (µmol/L)89.6 ± 16.9†79.4 ± 11.3*‡91.9 ± 15.5†82.2 ± 11.80.0022
 Time to peak (min)81.7 ± 28.3†§110 ± 25.2*‡78.3 ± 29.8†§108 ± 25.5*‡<0.0001
  • Overview of values from four 75-g OGTTs, each with concomitant i.v. infusion of GIP(3-30)NH2 + exendin(9-39)NH2, GIP(3-30)NH2, exendin(9-39)NH2, and placebo. Data are presented as mean ± SD. Differences between groups were compared with paired one-way rmANOVA with Greenhouse-Geisser correction and Tukey multiple comparison.

  • Symbols for P < 0.05 by Tukey multiple comparison compared with: *GIP(3-30)NH2 + exendin(9-39)NH2; †GIP(3-30)NH2; ‡exendin(9-39)NH2; or §placebo.