Table 2

Measures of CCM, corneal sensation, IENFD, and peripheral and cardiovascular autonomic nerve function in the diabetic and control groups studied

Diabetic group (n = 86)Control group (n = 48)P value
CNFL (mm/mm2)19.7 ± 7.524.9 ± 6.5<0.001
CNFL-MNF (mm/mm2)9.8 ± 3.611.9 ± 2.90.001
CNFD (n/mm2)299.2 ± 152.8397.3 ± 165.30.001
CNFD-MNF (n/mm2)58.2 ± 23.473.1 ± 17.9<0.001
CNBD (n/mm2)165.2 ± 96.4226.7 ± 103.10.001
CNBD-MNF (n/mm2)68.8 ± 33.289.9 ± 26.3<0.001
CNCP (n/mm)6.84 ± 3.308.50 ± 3.250.006
CNCP-MNF (n/mm)2.30 ± 1.432.71 ± 1.330.017
CNFTh (µm)2.30 ± 0.062.31 ± 0.060.604
CNFTh-MNF (µm)2.31 ± 0.072.31 ± 0.070.724
CNFTo10.85 ± 4.049.83 ± 3.230.136
CNFTo-MNF15.05 ± 3.9813.89 ± 3.470.096
CCM image area (mm2)0.520 ± 0.2810.603 ± 0.2470.091
Corneal sensation right5.95 ± 0.135.98 ± 0.060.074
Corneal sensation left5.96 ± 0.125.98 ± 0.060.387
IENFD (n/mm)8.3 ± 3.010.6 ± 3.6<0.001
Median motor NCV (m/s)52.4 ± 4.355.5 ± 3.8<0.001
Ulnar motor NCV (m/s)54.0 ± 5.658.2 ± 4.8<0.001
Peroneal motor NCV (m/s)42.6 ± 5.448.1 ± 4.5<0.001
Median sensory NCV (m/s)50.3 ± 6.954.5 ± 6.70.001
Median SNAP (µV)4.81 ± 3.556.91 ± 4.340.004
Ulnar sensory NCV (m/s)51.5 ± 5.652.8 ± 6.20.235
Ulnar SNAP (µV)4.00 ± 2.485.86 ± 3.270.001
Sural sensory NCV (m/s)42.0 ± 5.646.8 ± 4.1<0.001
Sural SNAP (µV)7.10 ± 5.049.77 ± 5.130.006
Metacarpal VPT (µm)0.64 ± 0.560.34 ± 0.19<0.001
Malleolar VPT (µm)3.24 ± 4.351.10 ± 1.09<0.001
Warm TDT thenar (°C)34.2 ± 4.033.8 ± 0.70.477
Warm TDT foot (°C)40.6 ± 4.439.8 ± 3.60.295
Cold TDT thenar (°C)30.1 ± 1.230.4 ± 0.80.162
Cold TDT foot (°C)26.1 ± 6.529.1 ± 1.8<0.001
LF power spectrum (ms2)519 ± 1,276706 ± 1,4150.466
HF power spectrum (ms2)445 ± 1,185639 ± 1,0990.386
CV at rest (%)4.36 ± 2.374.57 ± 2.450.666
CV during deep breathing (%)6.45 ± 3.238.00 ± 3.140.013
Valsalva ratio1.49 ± 0.261.64 ± 0.320.006
  • CV, coefficient of R-R interval variation; HF, high frequency; LF, low frequency.