Table 1

Subject characteristics at 5 and 14 years

BoysGirls
5 years14 years5 years14 years
Age (years)5.0 ± 0.414.0 ± 0.45.0 ± 0.313.9 ± 0.3
Adiposity (% fat)22.1 ± 10.231.0 ± 8.2
BMI SDS0.17 ± 0.850.68 ± 1.040.40 ± 0.590.75 ± 0.97
Moderate-vigorous physical activity (min/day)51.2 ± 24.958.0 ± 36.151.7 ± 15.643.0 ± 20.0
Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)0.49 ± 0.521.21 ± 1.100.75 ± 0.660.98 ± 1.57
APHV13.3 ± 0.5811.9 ± 0.97
  • Data are means ± SD except for insulin resistance (median ± interquartile range). Significant sex differences by one-way ANOVA were detected for APHV (P < 0.001) and adiposity (P = 0.03 at 5 years, P = 0.004 at 14 years). HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; SDS, SD scores standardized for age and sex.