Table 1

Baseline characteristics of study participants

CohortIndividuals (n)Microarray measurements (n)Age (years)Male, n (%)Disease duration (years)
Patients with TID
 D-GAP*4949126–3429 (59)1.40–3
 CBR15153122–355 (33)130–23
 Combined6464136–3534 (53)1.70–23
Healthy controls from CBR
 IFN-β stimulation663522–373 (50)N/AN/A
 IFN signature§87874222–5227 (31)N/AN/A
Patients with SLE25254319–615 (20)N/AN/A
BABYDIET1094541.50.2–9.145 (41)N/AN/A
  • Baseline characteristics for the study participants were stratified by the study cohorts.

  • * Patients with newly diagnosed T1D (duration of disease ≤3 years) enrolled in the Diabetes-Genes, Autoimmunity and Prevention (D-GAP) study.

  • Long-standing adult patients with T1D enrolled in the Cambridge BioResource (CBR).

  • Healthy donors selected from the CBR for the IFN-β stimulation assay

  • § Healthy donors selected from the CBR for the microarray assays.

  • BABYDIET is a prospective birth cohort of children genetically predisposed to T1D with at least one first-degree relative diagnosed with T1D and a carrier of the high-risk HLA-DRB1*03 and/or HLA-DRB1*04 alleles. In the BABYDIET cohort, there were 22 seroconverters (children who persistently developed at least one of four T1D-specific autoantibodies during the course of the study [i.e., IAA, GAD, IA2A, and ZnT8]) and 9 children who progressed to TID. Median age of seroconversion was 2.1 years, and median age at TID diagnosis was 6.2 years. N/A, not applicable.